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Vol. IV., No. 1. March 1903. 

(Nos. 3 and 4 of Vol. Ill, were never published.) 





Published Quarterly 

In the Interests of Ornithology 

in the Great Lake Region. 




Application made for entre 
as Second Class Mail matter 
at P. O. at Detroit, Mich. 



In Memcriam: Thomas Mcllwraith {with portrait) 

By Wm. E. Saunders 1 

Some Work for Michigan Ornithologists to do. By 

Wm. Dutcher , 6 

Some Hints for Bird Study. By Prof. Walter B. 

Barrows 10 

A List of the Land Birds of Southeastern Michi- 
gan. By B. H. Swales 14 

A. B. Covert (halftone) 18 

Suggestions for a Method of Studying the Migra- 
tion of Birds. By Leon J. Cole 19 

j_tfQitoriais .••.-..•.•.••••••<•...•••.••••....••••. co 

Book News and Reviews 24 

Merriam^s Handbook of Birds of the Western 

United States (2 halftones) 24 

Jacobs^ The Story of a Martin Colony 25 

Publications Received 26 

Notes from the Field and Museum 26 

An Announcement Concerning Bird Distribution. 

By C. C. Adams 29 

Minutes of Club Meetings 29 

Officers, Committees, Membership Roll 30 


is published on the fifteenth of March, June, September 
and December, by the Michigan Ornithological Club, at 
Detroit, Mich. 

Subscription: Fifty cents a year, including postage, 
strictly in advance. Single numbers, fifteen cents. Free 
to members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

All subscriptions, articles and communications in- 
tended for publication and all publications and books for 
notice, should be addressed to the Editor, Alexander W. 
Blain, Jr., 131 Elmwood Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Articles of general interest relating to the bird life of 
the Great Lake Region are solicited. They should be in 
the hands of the editor not later than the 20th of the 
month preceding publication. 




Michigan Ornithological Club 

Published Quarterly in the Interests op Ornithology 

in the Great Lake Region, 

Vol. IV. MARCH, 1903. No. 1. 



The news of the death on Jan. 30, 1903, of Thomas Mcllwraith, 
of Hamilton, Ontario, awakened sad sympathy in many hearts ; 
not the least numerous of these were the bird-lovers in Ontario 
and elsewhere, who had experienced the happy pleasure of his 
friendship. Many there are who have never been nearer to his 
personality than to have been favored with an occasional letter, 
but they too will feel sad to lose the genial encouragement, and 
the chatty friendliness of his generously long letters. My own 
acquaintance with him was chiefly limited to correspondence, 
although I have spent many happy and instructive hours in his 
pleasant home ; but my opportunity came too late in the day to 
allow me the pleasure of accompanying him in the field, as he was 
about sixty years old when I first called on him in 1883 or 1884, 
and he seemed disinclined to brave the dews of early morn and the 
other necessary vicissitudes of weather which must be encoun- 
tered in field work. 

That this had not always been the case was abundantly 
proven. Dr. Kennedy C. Mcllwraith, of Toronto, writes me that, 
"Most of his early collecting was done in the early morning. Up 
by 4 a. m. and orT to the woods, and then back in time for work." 
His fine collections of mounted birds and skins were a joy to see ; 
the former especially was composed so far as my memory serves 
me, entirely of selected specimens, and included many beautiful 

Bulletin of the 

birds which would be very difficult if not impossible to duplicate 
in Ontario at the present day. Among these were fine, high- 
plumaged adults of the White Egret and the Snowy Heron, and 
grand examples of both adult and young of the Raptores ; while 
the smaller birds also were represented by the choicest specimens 
only. It was to this collection, manifestly, that he gave the loving 
work of his early ornithological career, at the time when he could 
turn to no one who was his peer, for counsel or assistance. 

The collection of skins came later, when, with the growth of 
the science of ornithology, and the multiplication of students, 
came the recognition of various forms of a species, and the oppor- 
tunity for enriching his collection with southern and western 
birds by exchange. Much of this part of the collection was the 
work of his youngest son, Dr. K. C. Mcllwraith, of Toronto, who 
spent much time and energy in its preparation. But it was well 
regarded in time, however, and Dr. Mcliwraith doubtless felt, as 
did his father before him, invigorated in both mind and body, by 
the mental rest and bodily recreation of the collector's life. Mr. 
Mcllwraith's home location was very favorable for a bird-lover, as 
the garden and shrubbery around his house was quite extensive, 
and being situated right on the bay, it was a natural resting- 
place for many warblers and other small migrants, and it was 
there that many rare birds were taken with the little 22 collecting 
barrel, and there, on the morning of May 16, 1884, was found 
the remains of a Yellow-Breasted Chat, the first specimen of 

Thomas Mcllwraith was born in Newton, Ayrshire, Scotland, 
on Christmas Day, 1824, and had, therefore, nearly completed his 
78th year. Early in 1846 he went to reside in Edinburgh, wdiere 
he remained till about the end of 1848. Returning then to his 
native town he rested there until his marriage to Miss Mary 
Pack, in October, 1853, when he crossed to Canada and at once 
took up his residence in Hamilton, where he has ever since re- 
sided. He was manager of the gas works until 1871, when he 
embarked in the coal and forwarding business, which is now in 
the hands of his son, Thomas F. Mcllwraith. Besides his private 
business he held many prominent local positions, having been on 
the directorate of banks and insurance companies, president of 
the Mechanics' Institute, and alderman for the ward in which he 
resided. The letter quoted from Dr. Mcllwraith, says: "He 

Michigan Ornithological Club 3 

has often told me that when a boy his interest in Canadian birds 
was stimulated by seeing some stuffed specimens in Scotland ; 
one was a Belted Kingfisher, and one a Golden Winged Wood- 
pecker. When he came to Hamilton to manage the gas works 
he began to collect," and his spare time must have been largely 
spent in this occupation, for it was less than seven years after his 
arrival there when he read a paper on the birds of the district 
before the Hamilton Association, which was published in the 
Canadian Journal, and six years later there appeared in the pro- 
ceedings of the Essex Institute a more extended list of the "Birds 
of Hamilton, Canada West," which contained 24.T species. The 
care with which this list was compiled is evidenced by the fact 
that only two species appear in it with insufficient ground. There 
are, of course, a few hypothetical species, such as "Nyctala albi- 
frous, the White-Faced Owl," as the young of the Saw-whet was 
then called, but the list as a whole is an admirable object lesson 
of care and judgment. In this list are noted several items which 
are of special interest to the student of to-day, for instance : 
"Wild Turkeys, common along the western frontier, * 
Wild Pigeons, have not been numerous for the last five or six 
years. A few scattered flocks seen every spring." This note is 
evidently from the pen of a man who had known the pigeon in 
times of great abundance, as these flocks would doubtless, from 
the writer's own recollection (in 1869, three years after the publi- 
cation of Mr. Mcllwraith's list), have contained from 200 to 5000 
birds apiece, and the larger number would be judged an enormous 
number of any kind of birds today. Dr. Mcllwraith further says : 
"He often used to lament the diminution in the numbers of birds 
that he saw, especially the warblers and waders," doubtless a 
theme for mournful retrospection with all the older ornithologists 
whose good fortune it has been to live anywhere near the out- 
skirts of settlement in their earlier days. 

After the two lists of the birds of Ontario, noted above, his 
next published work was a volume of nearly 400 pages, entitled, 
"The Birds of Ontario," which was mainlv the record of his own 
personal experience, although in the preface he acknowledges as- 
sistance from Dr. J. H. Garvier, of Lucknow, Geo. R. White, of 
Ottawa, and other Canadian students. This was published in 
1886 by the Hamilton Association, and was partly the result of 
a paper entitled, "On Birds and Bird Matters," which he read be- 

4 Bulletin of the 

fore the Association in April, 1885. This book enumerates 302 
species, and is enriched by many anecdotes of the personal experi- 
ence of the author, and told in his usual happy voice. 

In 1894 appeared his next, and last, ornithological publication, 
a second edition of his former work, revised and enlarged, cover- 
ing 426 pages and 316 species. I beyond the books and papers 
above mentioned, it is a regretable fact that Mr. Mcllwraith wrote 
but little for the public. A man of his keen intelligence and lonu 
experience might have enriched ornithological records with many 
true pictures of the unusual in bird life, but his disposition did not 
lead him in that direction. He wrote a few pages for the "Cana- 
dian Sportsman and Naturalist" in 1883, in connection with the 
publication of a "List of the Birds of Western Ontario," by John 
A. Woden and W. E. Saunders, and never, I think, was a local 
list published by tyros, reviewed with kindly feeling so mani- 
fest, and such desire to inspire and help, as was this one by 
Thomas M ell wraith. His critique caused the beginning of a cor- 
respondence which continued intenualtently until his powers 
began to fail a few years before his death, and his letters were to 
me, as to all his correspondents, most instructive and helpful. 

The only article of any length which I find in the "Auk'' was 
published in July, 1883 (first series), describing the winter habits 
of the Pine Grosbeak, his first meeting with the Evening ( iros- 
beak, and giving a few notes on other winter birds to complete 
the list of his writings. They told of the finding of the dead 
body of a Yellow-Breasted Chat in his garden, the assurance of a 
man near Hamilton that a pair had spent the summer near there, 
and recorded the actions of a flock of White Pelicans on Jan 
13, 1884. He was invited to the meeting of the leading ornitholo- 
gists of the United States and Canada in 1883, at the Central 
Park Museum, New York City, and he was there one of the 
founders of the American Ornithologists' Union, and has ever 
since continued to be an active member of that organization. He 
was appointed Superintendent of the district of Ontario for the 
Migration Committee of the A. O. U., and worked diligently for 
many years in searching out observers and collecting and for- 
warding to Washington the results of their work. This brought 
him into correspondence with many ornithological students 
throughout the province who might not otherwise become ac- 
quainted with him. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 

It is a great pity that a man with his wide experience and ripe 
judgment, and whose ability to write instructively and entertain- 
ingly on the subject of ornithology, should have written so little 
as did our late friend. His letters will be cherished by his ac- 
quaintances, but it saddens his friends to think- of the wider, but 
unoccupied field in which his store of ornithological observations 
might have been more freely recorded, and his good influence 
might have been wielded to the advantage of a wider circle of 


»i Bulletin of the 



Before outlining a plan for work for the members of the 
Michigan Ornithological Club, I desire to express my satisfac- 
tion that the many well-known ornithologists of the Wolverine 
State have formed an organization which must advance the 
science of ornithology in the region about the great lakes, and 
will also benefit each individual member. 

I am well satisfied in my own mind that state ornithological 
clubs are of great benefit to the science at large ; further, such 
organizations keep the members in touch with each other, and 
when a journal is published, give an opportunity for individuals 
to contribute ornithological matter, which has been developed 
under personal observation, and will not only interest fellow- 
members, but be a record of permanent value. 

Moreover the work of an organization in every channel fol- 
lowed is very much greater than the sum total of the work of the 
individual members. 

The first line of work to be attempted by the club as an or- 
ganization, is to have the present incomplete non-game bird law 
of Michigan amended, that it may protect all of the beneficial 
birds, and w r ill also be uniform with the non-game bird laws of 
a large number of states which have already adopted the Ameri- 
can Ornithologists' Union model law : this law has the approval 
of the United States Department of Agriculture. 

The present Michigan law in certain of its sections is admir- 
able ; for instance, Section 5804 makes birds the property of the 
state ; Section 5805 prevents shipment of birds out of the state. 
(See Miller's Compiled Laws, 1897, Vol. 2, Chap. 150, pp. 1812- 

By a very simple amendment to Section 14 of the Public Acts 
of 1 901, No. 217, pp. 335-339, under the head of "Species Pro- 
tected; Exceptions," the present law of Michigan may be made 
entirely satisfactory. It is not broad or comprehensive enough 
at present, as there are many birds in Michigan that are neither 
"song" nor "insectivorous birds," that are not now protected but 
are deserving of the fullest protection. 

An amendment is now before the legislature, having been in- 
troduced by the Hon. George Gallup, substituting the words "or 
any other wild non-game bird" for "song or insectivorous bird." 

Michigan Ornithological Club 7 

This amendment will give protection to the beneficial hawks and 
owls, therefore it becomes necessary to except from protection 
those hawks and owls that are harmful, i. e., Cooper's and sharp- 
shinned hawks and the great horned owl. 

Another feature of the amendment is that it will impose a 
legal bar to the use of the plumage of any protected bird, or any 
part thereof, for millinery purposes. 

The amendment defines by scientific and common names the 
birds that can properly be considered game. 

As the legislature of Michigan will probably be in session for 
some weeks after the publication of the first number of the Bul- 
letin of the Michigan Ornithological Club, it will give an oppor- 
tunity to the members of the club to use all of their personal 
and club influence to secure the passage of the proposed amend- 
ment. If it is not adopted at the present session the law cannot 
be changed until 1905, and in the meantime much harm may be 
done the valuable and interesting birds of Michigan. 

If a special committee of the club will take this matter of 
legislation in hand, and bring it intelligently before the press of 
the state, and thus secure their influence, it will be of marked 

Citizens in all parts of the state should be asked to write let- 
ters to their representatives and senators urging the passage of 
the amendment, on the ground that it is an economic measure of 
great value to the agricultural interests of the state. 

A second line of work is enforcement of the bird law. 

There is absolutely no more important work that can be done 
by the members of the club than to see that the bird laws are 
absolutely enforced. The membership of the club comes from all 
parts of your state ; each member should take a personal interest 
in seeing that the law is strictly enforced in his locality, and to 
that end he should be thoroughly posted as to its provisions, and 
to the legal methods for its enforcement. 

A third line of work will be to introduce nature study into the 
public schools of Michigan ; this is an important innovation and 
may be somewhat slow of accomplishment. However, a strong 
committee should be appointed to take the matter up with the 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Within the last few years the subject of nature study has been 
brought so prominently to the front, that undobtedlv it will soon 

8 Bulletin of the 

be a part of the curriculum of the schools throughout the country. 
The economic importance of birds is becoming so well recognized 
that the scholars in the country schools, the childre i who will 
within a few years become farmers and farmers' wives themselves, 
should be given a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the 
economic value of all birds; such knowledge will prove both 
pleasant and profitable to them in after life. 

A fourth line of work should be that of educating the agricul- 
turists of the state. Unfortunately very few of the present day 
farmers have more than a very slight understanding of the value 
of birds as farm helpers. During the childhood of the present 
generation of farmers, especially those who are past middle life, 
but little was known of the economic value of birds, and preju- 
dice begat of ignorance was the result. Happily this condition 
is changing very rapidly ; from all parts of the country the farmers 
are beginning to ask for information about birds, and in many 
sections of the country, where the matter has been forcibly 
brought to their attention by serious crop losses, they are demand- 
ing more rigid protection for the birds they are now beginning 
to recognize as their friends. 

The National Committee of Audubon Societies have com- 
menced the publication of a series of Educational Leaflets, each 
one of which will treat of a single species ; these will be illustrated 
by Air. Fuertes, the well known bird artist, and will give not 
only an accurate description of the plumage of the bird, but also 
its distribution in North America. In addition the very latesl 
information regarding the economic status of the bird will be 

A liberal circulation of these leaflets will be the means of 
conveying much valuable information to the teachers and scholars 
of ^Michigan, as well as the farmers and fruit-growers. 

Suggesting these channels of activity to the members of the 
Michigan Ornithological Club, and wishing them great success 
in their personal and club work, T am, Very cordially, 

Chairman Protective Committee, 
American Ornithologists' Union. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 




(From Handbook of Birds of Western United States) 

10 Bulletin of the 



Little progress in bird study can be made — in fact, real bird 
study can hardly be said to begin — until the student has become 
somewhat familiar with most of our common birds, until he can 
recognize and name correctly at sight the males at least of sixty 
or seventy species. Of course, it will take some trouble to get 
this amount of knowledge, but it must be obtained before better 
work can be done. You can make no "original observations" of 
any value, impart no information worth considering, publish no 
"records" which will command attention, until you really know 
all of our common birds when you see them. Some may be 
"seen" well enough for recognition half a mile away, others must 
be watched patiently at a distance of but two or three yards, and 
a few may have to be killed, measured, and compared with de- 
scriptions or specimens before identification is possible. 

For this purpose use every means at your disposition — books, 
pictures, museum specimens, correspondence with friends or with 
naturalists whom you have never met. Help yourself as far as 
practicable, for your own good, but do not be afraid or ashamed 
to ask help from others when you have made an honest effort and 
are not satisfied ; get the facts somehow. Thus knowledge will 
come with experience, and eventually you will name nine out of 
ten living birds at sight, and the tenth one after a little patient 
watching and thinking. 

The largest and most valuable part of the unknown facts about 
Michigan birds relate to the common species. "Rare" birds are 
always interesting and should not be slighted, but there are 
thousands of things waiting to be discovered about our common- 
est birds. Fifteen years ago I began studying the common Crow, 
and for four years gave almost my whole time to that one species. 
Much was learned, but much more remained to be learned, and 
although I have been at it ever since, not a season passes which 
does not add some new fact to my knowledge of that wonderful 

Among the facts which we want to know are all the common 
names by which any bird is known. Of course we all know that 
the Downy Woodpecker is not a sapsucker, although often sc 
called, but I was amazed recently to find that the Nuthatches 
are commonly called sapsuckers in some parts of the state. In 

Michigan Ornithological Club 11 

some sections the Bobolink is known only as the Skunk-head 
Blackbird, while the Towhee or Chewink is called Bobolink. 
More than thirty different names are recorded for the Flicker or 
Golden-winged Woodpecker, and doubtless half of these might 
be found in regular use in one part or another of Michigan. There- 
fore, while learning to name birds properly yourself, try to find 
out what other people call them, and do a little missionary work 
as you have opportunity. 

As soon as you know common birds well you can begin to be 
of real use to others by adding to the common store of knowl- 
edge. We want to know all sorts of things. Though not among 
the most important facts, yet it is desirable to know when the 
various species arrive from the South, how long they stay, 
whether they nest here or go further North, when they leave 
for the South again, and a host of related facts. The novice 
should let dates of "departure" alone; anyone with moderate 
knowledge, who is in the field every day or two, may make 
valuable records of arrivals, but it takes some experience to 
detect absences promptly. 

We cannot know too much of nesting habits, but among the 
points on which our information is very meagre are the period of 
incubation and the length of time the young stay in the nest or 
remain under the parents' care. If this work is to be done prop- 
erly the observer should not only keep a model note-book, but 
he should be provided with a small mirror wired to the end of a 
light rod (a jointed fishing-rod is the thing), in such a way that 
the mirror can be bent at any angle and the observer can look 
into a nest a dozen feet above his head, or in the tangle of a 
thicket, without disturbing the nest in any way or jeopardizing 
comfort or clothing in the effort to get closer. The number of 
broods reared by some species is still in doubt, and any fact 
bearing on this point should be noted. Disaster often overtakes 
the first nest and a second or third attempt may be made, thus 
delaying the appearance of the young far beyond the usual time, 
and misleading any but the most careful observers. 

Perhaps there is no subject which offers a more fruitful field 
for the careful student than a study of the mortality of the dif- 
ferent species during nesting-time. Let someone keep watch of 
a limited number of nests of the Robin, Blue Jay, Catbird, Song 
Sparrow, Phoebe, or other common species, and note the success 
or failure of each family, as shown by the number of healthy 

12 Bulletin of the 

young; which finally "graduate" from each nest. Not only would 
the figures so obtained be valuable in themselves, but the knowl- 
edge of the causes of failure, complete or partial, would give us 
the means of affording better protection to the unfortunate birds, 
at least in some cases. 

For such students as are favorably situated, the work of 
census taking, carefully and systematically done, would be most 
valuable, both for the training afforded and for the positive gains 
to science. Most of the statements so freely published as to the 
great changes in bird population in the last few years rest upon 
the flimsiest of foundations, being for the most part hasty con- 
clusions from very insufficient data, or even mere guesses with- 
out any foundation at all. 

Finally, and above all, never sacrifice a bird's life or nest, or 
endanger its freedom or comfort, without a good, honest pur- 
pose. If it is necessary to ''make a collection" of birds, secure 
the right to do it by a permit from the proper officer (the State 
Game and Fish Warden), and do not abuse the privilege. Col- 
lections of eggs cannot be made legally in Michigan, as the 
present law does not authorize the issuing of permits for that 
purpose, while it does specifically prohibit the destruction of nests 
or eggs of protected birds for any purpose whatever. 

Agricultural College, Mich., March 14, 1903. 9 

Michigan Ornithological Club 




(From Handbook of the Birds of Western United States) 

14 IUu.ktix op Tin: 




Very meager literature on ornithology has been published on 
the fertile field comprising Southeastern Michigan, and no list of 
the birds of the region has appeared to my knowledge. This 
paper is intended solely as a Preliminary List of the birds re- 
corded in the Counties of Wayne, Southern ( )akland, Eastern 
Macomb, Southern St. Clair, which includes the American por- 
tion of the St. Clair Flat region. 

Georgraphical lines are difficult to draw in this region, owing 
to the varied topography of the country. Situated as Detroit is 
on the broad Detroit River, almost midway between Lakes Erie 
and St. Clair, a natural highway for migrating birds is afforded. 

Since 1889 I have studied as carefully as time and busi- 
ness allowed, the birds of this region, to which data is added 
all available material of value and reliability. The list is as com- 
plete as possible, but doubtless with the increased ornithological 
work many species will be added by future stud}' and observa- 
tion. My main object in view of publication is to get the list 
under way where future study can correct and complete it, and 
to afford a working basis for local ornithologists. 

My thanks are especially due to Mr. J. Claire Wood, of De- 
troit, for invaluable personal help, extending over the entire 
period of my observation. Also to Alex. W. Blain, Jr., and 
Walter C. Wood for many valuable notes. 

1. Colinus Virginianus (Linn). 

Bob White. — A fairly abundant resident. This bird is apparently on the 

2. Bonasa umbellus (Linn). 

Ruffed Grouse. — Resident, fairly abundant 

3. Zenaidura macroura (Linn). 

MOURNING Dove. — An abundant summer resident. Of late years a few 
individuals remain throughout the winter in favorable localities. 

4. Cathartes aura (Linn). 

Turkey Vulture. — Apparently on the increase, as I seldom noted the 
bird in the early '90s. A few are seen every spring and fall soaring 
over the woods. Mr. L. J. Eppingcr, of Detroit, mounted a bird that was 
sh< t in late October, 1902, in almost the heart of the city. As recorded in the 

Michigan Ornithological Club 15 

"Bulletin" of the Michigan Ornithological Club, Vol i, W. M. Randall, of 
Belleville, states that a pair nested in that locality in 1897. 

5. Elanoides forficatus (Linn). 

Swallow Tailed Kite. — One record only. The late W. H. Collins shot 
a specimen in 1881, which is now preserved in the collection of the Detroit 
Museum of Art. However, this bird has been noted at London, Ontario, 
north of here, and one was shot in June, 1892, in Monroe County, directly 
south of Wayne County. 

6. Pirus hudsonius (Linn). 

Marsh Hawk. — Common summer resident. Occasionally seen in winter, 
especially in the fields adjacent to the river and lake. Breeds both inland 
and at the Flats. 

7. Accipiter velox (Wils). 

Shark Shinned Hawk. — Rather a rare migrant, usually observed only 
in March and April and the Fall. 

8. Accipter cooperii (Bonap.) 

Cooper Hawk. — A common bird, next to Buteo lineatus, our most abun- 
dant breeding hawk. Rarely seen in winter. 

9. Accipiter atricapillus (Wils). 

Am. Goshawk. — Very rare. I have never observed the bird here. Mr. 
James B. Purdy records one shot December 24, 1898, at Plymouth. 

10. Buteo borealis (Gmel). 

Red Tailed Hawk. — Fairly abundant, many are resident birds. Breeds in 
the larger timber in the more unsettled sections. 

11. Buteo lineatus (Gmel). 

Red Shouldered Hawk. — Our most abundant hawk, breeding commonly 
throughout the section. A few are resident. 

12. Buteo swainsoni (Bonap.). 

Swainson's Hawk. — A rare straggler. Several have been taken in 
Wayne County. Mr. Davidson records one taken by Mr. John Stocker 
near Grosse Pointe. 

13. Buteo latissmus (Wils). 

Broad Winged Hawk.— Fairly abundant, migrant usually observed in 
late April and early May. I am positive that the bird breeds here, but to my 
knowledge no eggs have been taken. 

14. Archibuteo lapopus sancti-johannis (Gmel). 

Am. Rough-legged Hawk.— Migrant, seen generally in late fall and 
winter, less frequently in spring. 

15. Aquila chrysaetos (Linn). 

Golden Eagle.— A rare straggler. I have never seen it. James B. 
Purdy records two as being taken near Plymouth— one shot in December, 
1901, and one in October, 1898. 

16 Bulletin of the 

16. Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linn). 

Bald Eagle. — Comparatively rare, usually observed in late fall and during 
the winter. Generally a few individuals are seen on the river or at the Flats 
in the winter. These feed on the ducks that frequent the open places in 
the ice. A pair have been for many years on Elba Island, near the mouth 
of the Detroit River. 

17. Falco columbarius (Linn). 

Pigeon Hawk. — A rare migrant in spring and fall. Of late years I have 
not seen the bird. Two were shot in October, 1898, by C. H. Allis. 

18. Falco sparverius (,Linn). 

Am. Sparrow Hawk. — Abundant Summer resident. A few are usually 
to be seen every winter. 

19. Pandion haliaetus carolinensis (Gmel). 

Am. Osprey. — Rather rare migrant. T have only observed it in early 
spring and late fall. 

20. Strix pratincola (Bonap.). 

Am. Barn Owl. — Very rare. James B. Purdy records but one near 
Plymouth. As recorded in the Auk, Vol. XIX., one was taken near the 
lower end of the Detroit River. 

21. Asio wilsonianus (Less). 

Am. Long Eared Owl. — Not common, but probably more so than sup- 
posed owing to its nocturnal habits. J. Clair Wood has taken several sets, 
but none since 1887. 

22. Asio accipitrinus (Pall). 

Short Eared Owl. — Fairly abundant, migrant in spring and fall. Usually 
observed in territory bordering the river or at the Flats. Does not breed. 

23. Syrnium nebulosum (Forst). 
Barred Owl. — Not common, resident. 

24. Nyctala acadica (Gmel). 

Saw- whet Owl. — Rather rare, but owing to its small size and nocturnal 
habits is not often seen. Hence the bird may be more abundant than is 
generally supposed. Breeds. Mr. W. A. Davidson, of Detroit, has taken a 
set of eggs in Oakland County. 

25. Bubo virginianus (Gmel). 

Great Horned Owl. — Resident, far less abundant than formerly, owing to 
excessive persecution and the destruction of the larger timber. 

26. Megascops asio (Linn). 

Screech Owl. — Resident, common. The gray phase predominates here, 
and I have rarely seen a bird in the red plumage. Lately one was brought 
in from Macomb County. 

27. Nyctea nyctea (Linn). 

Snowy Owl. — A transient visitor in late fall and winter. During the 
winter of iqoi-'o2 the bird was unusually abundant here, for the species, 

Michigan Ornithological Club 17 


and many were sent in to local taxidermists. The past winter, i902-'03, I was 
able to hear of but two being taken. 

28. Coccyzus Americanus (Linn). 

Yellow Billed Cuckoo. — A common Summer resident. Breeds, some- 
times very late. We have taken several sets in eariy September. Usually this 
bird is not seen until May 10th, and I have seen it as late as October 26th. 

29. Coccyzus erythrophthalmus (Wils). 

Black Billed Cuckoo. — A fairly common Summer resident. Breeds. 
According to my experience rarer than the preceding. 

30. Ceryle alcyon (Linn). 

Belted Kingfisher. — Summer resident, abundant, breeds. I have two 
records of the bird wintering here, and Mr. Purdy saw one at Plymouth 
Dec. 29, 1898. 

31. Dryobates villosus (Linn). 

Hairy Woodpecker. — A common resident, but much more abundant in 
winter. A few pairs breed. Not as common as D. pubescens. The earliest 
recorded set is April 22, 1889, taken by Mr. Purdy, of Plymouth. 

32. Dryobates pubescens (Linn). 

Downy Woodpecker. — Common resident; breeds in late April and early 

33. Sphyrapicus varius (Linn). 

Yellow-billed Sapsucker. — Spring and Fall migrant. A few pairs re- 
main to breed. 

34. Melanerpes erythrocephalos (Linn). 

Red Headed Woodpecker. — Abundant Summer resident. Of late 
years, since '95, this bird has wintered in considerable numbers at Belle 
Isle, the island park of Detroit. The past winter of i9O2-'03 the bird was 
entirely absent. Occasionally a single bird winters on the mainland. 

35. Melanerpes carolinus (Linn). 

Red-bellied Woodpecker. — Rather a rare migrant in spring and fall, 
rarely in winter. Some years pass without a single bird being observed. 
Usually seen in April and October. 

36. Colaptes auratus (Linn). 

Flicker. — Summer resident ; common. A few are usually seen every 
winter of late years. My earliest record for migrants is March 4. 

37. Antrostomus vociferus (Wils). 

Whip-poor-will. — Fairly abundant Summer resident, usually more often 
heard than seen. Arrives from April 29 to May 7 generally. 

38. Chordeiles virgianus (Gmel). 

Night Hawk. — A common bird from May 10th to September 1st. 

39. Chaetura pelagica (Linn). 

Chimney Swift. — Summer resident; common. My earliest date is April 
but the bird generally arrives here by May 1st. 

(To be continued.) 


Bulletin of the 

(2dU>tfU $, Sr^yf 

Michigan Ornithological Club 19 




Many theories have been advanced to account for the striking migrations 
of birds ,and as has been shown by Wallace, 1 and in a somewhat modified 
way by Brooks, 2 the law of natural selection is capable of accounting for 
the origin of this habit, which has become so permanently fixed in 
nearly all our birds. But there are many phenomena connected with 
migration to account for which even satisfactory hypotheses are not as 
yet forthcoming, chief among which may be cited the question of how 
birds are able to find their way unerringly over hundreds, or even thou- 
sands, of miles of land and water to a particular locality which they have 
left the previous year. Before these questions can be answered a much 
better knowledge of the facts is necessary. 

Various methods have been employed for obtaining data relative to 
the migration of birds, and an immense amount is contained in miscellaneous 
notes scattered throughout the ornithological literature. These notes embody 
in large part the records of single observers on the flights of birds, theif 
abundance at various times of year, and especially records of their first arrival 
in the spring. The collection of this last mentioned data, together with 
some further notes on the time the bird became common, whether it breeds 
at the station of the observer, etc., has been carried on in an extensive and 
systematic way in this country for many years by the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, under the able direction of Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 
A very excellent report of some of the results of the first of this work in 
the Mississippi Valley was prepared by Prof. W. W. Cooke, 3 but so far as I 
know nothing of the kind has been attempted with the mass of data which 
must have accumulated since that time. During the period of its activity the 
Michigan Ornithological Club appointed a committee to collect similar data 
in the Great Lake region, blanks being used almost identical with those of 
the Department of Agriculture. 

Pre-eminent among individual observers is undoubtedly the late Herr 
Gatke, of Heliogoland, whose observations cover a period of some fifty 
years, while in this country Mr. Leverett M. Loomis has accumulated 
a mass of notes on the movements of the water birds off the California 
coast, and 'Sir. Otto Widmann has for years kept accurate records of 
migration in the Mississippi valley, which are largely quoted by Cooke in 
the work mentioned. Some information has also been gathered relative 

^Nature, X., p. 459. 

2 The Foundations of Zoology, chapter V. New York, 1899. 

3 Keport on Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley in the Years 1884 and 1885, by 
\Y. W. Cooke. Edited and revised by Dr. C. Hart Merriam. U. S. Dept. Agr., Division 
of Economic Ornithology, Bulletin No. 2. Washington, 1888. 

*Reprinted from the Third Annual Report of the Michigan Academy of Science, for 
3 901, pp. 67-70. Lansing, 1902. 

20 Bulletin* of the 

the movements I birds at night by observations at light houses, 1 and 
by the use of telescopes turned upon the moon, a record being kept of the 
birds that crossed the illuminated field. A more or less systematic attempt 
has been made at the former, and I believe Mr. Winknewerder at the 
Universi.y of Wisconsin is at present carrying on investigations in the 
latter line. Some data are gathered also from the birds that meet with 
accidents while migrating, such as flying against t( wers, buildings, wires, etc. 

While at Woods Holl in the summer of 1900 I had the pleasure of 
hearing Dr. Robert H. Wolcott give the results of some of his studies on 
migration in Nebraska, in which he seemed to show beyond doubt that at 
least seme of the birds, in coming in:o Nebraska in the spring, follow 
natural routes such as the water-ways ; for example, certain species were 
found to arrive successively at intervals along the Missouri, the Platte 
and finally at localities on s:reams tributary to the Platte. It was with 
an idea of finding whether similar routes could be mapped in Michigan 
that I lately undertook to work over the records accumulated by the migra- 
tion committee of the Michigan Orni.hological Club. I found, however 
that the records for any one species were far too few and scattered to 
give any satisfactory results. Although the sheets in use give much 
valuable information, there are several reasons why, it seems to me, what 
might be called an intensive method might be employed to advantage in place 
of this more extensive one. The ideal would be, of course, a method 
which would give us complete records of the movements of every species 
of bird at each station where there is an observer, not only for the period 
of migration, but throughout the year ; but for obvious reasons these cannot 
be obtained. In the first place, to obtain such records would require 
practically the whole time of the observer, while for these notes we have to 
depend almost entirely upon persons whose time is mostly taken up in other 
ways, and who study birds only as a pleasure and pastime during leisure 
hours. And again, many of these observers, though familiar with the com- 
moner species of birds, and whose notes on these species are perfectly 
reliable, are net familiar with the bulk of the birds ; and in their migration 
blanks the list of species is often small, or otherwise, apt to be inaccurate. 

Some common bird should be selected, one which is familiar to all 
amateurs, and blanks sent out with full instructions for recording the data 
with regard to this species for all times of the year. The species selected 
should also be one that makes its presence known when it is in a locality, 
without requiring too much search to find it. It should also be one in 
which the female is easily distinguishable from the male, and if possible, in 
which the young differ from both. With proper instructions accompanying 
these blanks, records could be gathered from which the movements of the 
specie^ could be mapped with considerable assurance, and incidentally the 
distribution and relative abundance at the different stations throughout 
the year could be ascertained. Light would also be thrown upon many vex- 
ing questions which are awaiting settlement. For instance, do the birds 
remain in the neighborhood after breeding, or do they move northward as 

"In this connection, Bird Migration, by William Brewster. Memoirs of the Nuttal 
Ornithological Club, No. 1. Cambridge, Mass., 1886. 

Notes on bird migration are scattered throughout all the ornithological publications: 
no complete bibliography has ever been made, and would be both very extensive and 
difficult to compile. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 21 

is supposed to be the case with some species? Do the old birds or the 
young lead in the fall migrations? This is a question upon which there is 
considerable difference of opinion among writers at present, and is a vital 
point in the recently advanced theory of Capt. G. Reynaud 1 on the orienta- 
tion of animals, in which he advances the theory of a "sixth sense/' which 
he calls the "law of retracement" or "law of reverse scent." He says, 2 
"When the time for departure is come, birds of the same species, inhabiting 
the same region, come together for the journey. Those that have already 
made the voyage take the lead and retrace the path by which they came. 
The younger birds, born since the last journey, confine themselves to 
following their elders, and when, some months later, it becomes time 
to return, these are able in their turn to follow in a reverse direction the 
journey previously made." Here is a question of fact that must be settled 
by observation before we can seriously consider the theory. Again, Is it 
the young birds that are most apt to stray from the regular paths of 
migration ? Does the species in migrating advance as a whole, or is it 
"like a game of leap-frog," the birds in the rear continually passing those 
ahead, as a flock of passenger pigeons is said to advance across a field 
when feeding? How definitely do birds return to the same locality every 
summer? Do their routes of migration vary from year to year? These 
and many other questions could, I believe, be settled by a line of study 
such as I have indicated, and would open the way to a consideration of the 
little-understood "homing instinct" of animals, which probably reaches its 
highest development in birds, enabling them to reach a definite destination 
over hundreds of miles of land and sea, often without any landmark for 
guidance, even supposing that they make use of such helps. This faculty 
appears especially remarkable to one who has seen the murres and other 
water birds of Bering Sea returning through the ever-present fog to their 
nests on one of the few islands which afford them a home. As the boat 
approaches land, which is hidden from sight and its presence and direction 
known to the navigator only by the help of his charts, long, broken lines 
or smaller flocks of these birds are seen flying rapidly by. There is no 
hesitation, no uncertainty ; they may swerve aside from curiosity to pass 
near and inspect the ship, but the flight is then continued in the former 
direction. What can guide these creatures where the vision is limited 
to a small expanse of gray water enveloped in cloud? Certainly it cannot 
be the direction of the wind, as maintained by seme, for the wind does not 
always blow in the same direction, and may even not blow at all. 

It is not an easy matter to select a species of bird that will meet all 
the conditions given above as desirable for the one to be studied, but 
there are several that fulfill a part of them at least. As far as the matter 
of plumage goes the red-winged blackbird seems to offer as good a subject 
for easy identification as any, and would also be favorable in other ways; 
but it is possible that further thought may suggest a better. 

To answer some of the questions propounded above an even more 
exact method will probably be needed, and it is possible that for this 
some such plan as that pursued by the United States Fish Commission 
might be utilized. In order to. get information of the movements of fish 

J Revue des Deux Mondes, CXLVI, 380-402, Translation in Annual Report Smiths. 
Inst, for 1898, pp. 481-498. 

2 Smiths. Rept. for 1898, p. 490. 

22 Bulletin of the 

they fasten numbered tags upon individuals that have been caught and let 
them go again, keeping accurate record of the numbers and all the data of 
release. Instructions are dispersed among the fishermen of the region 
asking them to return all labels they may find on the fish they take, together 
with the data of capture, such as locality, condition of the fish, etc. As I say, 
it is possible such a plan might be used in following the movements of 
individual birds, if some way could be devised of numbering them which 
would not interfere with the bird in any way, and would still be conspicuous 
enough to attract the attention of any person who might chance to shoot 
or capture it. 

A trial of the methods I have attempted to outline would necessarily en- 
tail considerable labor and require much time of the person directing it, 
and could probably be carried on best by a committee of some scientific 
society or other organization. A number of years at least would be re- 
quired to settle with definiteness many of the questions, and some of them 
might require many years of continued observations. On the other hand a 
very complete account would be collected of the habits of at least one 
species, and many interesting things would undoubtedly come out that had 
not been thought of before. Perhaps it would be found that more than one 
species could be studied advantageously at the same time, as, for instance, 
one bird that is a summer resident and another that is a winter visitant 
within the region where observations are being made. The aim would 
ever be to obtain the most complete data for as many species as possible. 


The twentieth congress of the American Ornithologists' Union was held 
in Washington, D. C, on Nov. 17, 18 and 19. Prof. Walter B. Barrows, of 
the Agricultural College, and Prof. Herbert Lyman Clark, of Olivet, were 
present, and presented papers. Dr. Clark was elected a member of the 

The Hon. Peter White, of Marquette, has been elected a member of 
the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan. Mr. White is one 
of the pioneers of the State, and has long been known as an admirer of 
Nature and an earnest supporter of higher education. 

Dr. Jacob Reignard, Professor of Zoology in the University of Michigan, 
has received leave of absence for one year to do special biological work for 
the United States Fish Commission. 

Mr. Louis J. Eppinger, the taxidermist, is at present mounting a col- 
lection of South African animal and bird skins collected by our late governor, 
Hon. H. vS. Pingree. 

Dr. P. E. Moody and Mr. Edwin G. Mummery contemplate a two weeks 
collecting trip among the birds of Oakland County, during the month of 
May. It is unnecessary to say that these two careful observers, will be suc- 
cessful and the Bulletin hopes to hear from them upon their return. 

Mr. Herbert H. Spicer, formerly of Detroit, is now in Chicago. 

Mr. J. Clair Wood opened the Oological season with a set of Great 
Horned Owl, on March 13th. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 23 



fllMcbigan ©rnitbolOQical Club 




131 Elmwood Avenue, - Detroit, Mich. 

associates : 
J. Clair Wood, - - - Detroit, Mich. 

Adolphe B. Covert, - - - Ann Arbor, Mich, 

Detroit, Mich., March 1903. 

Subscription: In North America, fifty cents a year, strictly in advance. 
Single copies, fifteen cents. 

Foreign Subscription: Seventy-five cents a year to all countries in the 
Universal Postal Union. 

Free to Members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 


After a few years of apparent sleep, the Michigan Ornithological Club 
has again become active, and likewise its Bulletin, which discontinued pub- 
lication (with Volume III., No. 2) April, 1899, leaving No. 3 and 4 un- 
published, has taken on a new lease of life and again appears as the regular 
record of the club. 

Inexperience on the part of the editor-in-chief and tardiness on the 
part of some of its contributors has delayed the first number of Volume IV. 
much later than was at first anticipated. However, the Bulletin wishes to 
thank its friends for the deep interest which they have taken in its progress, 
and especially to the many non-state ornithologists, who have helped in the 
work. From now on we hope to get the Bulletin out on time, and improve 
from issue to issue as funds allow. 

The Bulletin, as the organ of the Michigan Ornithological Club, will be 
devoted to the ornithology of the Great Lakes Region. It is not a financial 
enterprise, but again appears as a co-worker to the number of already 
existing bird-publications. 

The Bulletin would impress upon the members that it is their publication 

24 Bulletin of the 

— not the editors', and to this end we want help from every member in the 
form of notes, criticisms, suggestions, etc. 

Bird protection will be one of the objects of the BULLETIN — however, we 
shall not try to discourage the taking of a limited number of birds, their 
nests and eggs for scientific specimens, whether they be for a public or 
private collection. A. W. B. Jr. 

People who are fond of birds for their beauty, melody, and interest 
ing ways, and care to go no deeper into the study than to enjoy them as 
( ne does the dowers or other beautiful, natural things, represent a majority 
of the bird-lovers of the state, and we hope to see them all entered upon 
our membership roll. 

The statement that the main object of the club is the promotion of the 
science of ornithology in the Great Lakes Region, with this Bulletin as 
the medium of record, should not scare them into visions of long Latin 
names, technical descriptions, and dry statistics predominating these pages. 
On the contrary, we intend to see that their interests are well represen'.ed 
and solicit from them short, readable articles, insisting only upon accuracy of 
i bservation and that they pertain to birds. 

With a view to promoting this study, we trust our readers will ferret 
out every individual in the state of natural history inclination and favor us 
with his or her name and address. It is pleasing to note the steadily 
increasing interest in birds, and we look forward with confidence to a large 
membership and cordial support. 

Many of the rising generation who take pleasure in bird study meet 
with much opposition at home. Far be it from us to question parental wis- 
dom, but we wish to say that we have associated with birds since childhood, 
and at no time or in no way has the interest interfered with other business. 
\\ e feel certain that field study is highly beneficial, and parents make a 
mistake in denying their progeny all the encouragement possible. Beyond 
a doubt there is a moral, intellectual and physical benefit derived. The 
laws of nature with which the student is constantly associated tend to ennoble 
and elevate the mind, while the field work quickens the eye and sense 
of hearing, develops a habit of observation and strengthens the power of 
thought and is also one of the surest promoters of physical strength, 
activity and health. J. C. W. 


Handbook of Birds of the Western United States. By Florence Mer- 
riam Bailey. Illustrated by Louis Agassiz Fuertes and others. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co., Boston, Mass., 1002. 12 mo.. xcii.-f486 pages-l-index : 36 
full page plates, 2 diagrams, 601 figures in text. Price, $3.50 net and 19 
cents postage. 

"This bcok is intended to do for the western part of the United States 
what Mr. Frank M. Chapman's Handbook has done for the East. It 
is written on similar lines, and gives descriptions and biographical sketches 
of all our Western birds in a thoroughly scientific yet not unduly technical 
form, including all the United States species not treated by Chapman, besides 
those which are common to both sections of the country. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 25 

"The author is well known to ornithologists and amateurs, especially under 
her maiden name of Florence A. Merriam. She has been assisted in the 
preparation of the book by her husband, Mr. Vernon Bailey, of the United 
States Biological Survey, whose experience of about twenty years in the 
field as an ornithologist and mammalogist has taken him into all parts of the 
West. Mrs. Bailey herself has worked in California nearly three years, 
and has spent some time in Utah, Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico. Her 
home is in Washington, D. C, where she has constant access to the gov- 
ernment collections." 

It may, perhaps, seem out of place here, in a journal devoted to the orni- 
thology of the Great Lakes Region, to call notice to a book intended for 
the students west of the Mississippi. Yet in offering a western counterpart of 
Chapman's work, Mrs. Bailey has given to science a work which will not 
only be of great value to our western brethren,- but of value to all who, in 
these days of advancement, wish to extend their ornithological knowledge 
beyond their native boundaries. 

"The book is well equipped with illustrated keys, and the matter under 
each species is presented in an orderly fashion. In the case of land birds — 
the most important from an economic point of view — a brief statement of 
the food of each species is given. For the introduction Mr. Bailey contrib- 
utes directions for the skinning of birds and the preparation of eggs ; Dr. 
T. S. Palmer furnishes a paper on bird protection, and lists of birds found 
at various representative localities in the West, are supplied by competent 
ornithologists. The Introduction also treats the subject of economics, migra- 
tion, note-taking, and so forth." 

The many full-page plates by Fuertes and the numerous cuts in the 
text, add in no small measure to the value and usefulness of this work. 
Through the courtesy of the publishers we are able to present to our readers 
two reprints of Mr. Fuerte's drawings. The cut of the Ring-bill Gull, which 
is somewhat reduced from the frontispiece, is a work of art and can be 
appreciated only by those who have seen this graceful creature flying over 
our rivers and lakes. 

To the closet naturalist of the East, this Handbook is indispensible, and 
for the students of the West it will" be found as useful as we find "Chapman" 
— which means that it is the best book for the working ornithologist. 

A. W. B, Jr. 

The Story of a Martin Colony. By J. Warren Jacobs. 

This interesting paper, based chiefly on the author's observations, covers 
a study of these interesting birds from 1896 until 1902, at Waynesburg, Pa. 

The dates of arrival from 1891 until 1902 are given, varying from March 
20th until April 8th. Cold weather retarding arrival. The adult males come 
first, usually one by one. They depart for the South in flocks usually the 
third week in August — sometimes a few remain until early September. 

Mr. Jacobs has had excellent opportunity to study their food habits and 
finds it consists largely of beetles, dragon flies, Mayflies, winged ants and 
butterflies, all of which are, as far as observed, caught on the wing. 

One of the worst enemies of the Martin, is the English Sparrow. 
The author notes that this species frequently kills the young by pecking 
its skull. It also destroys the Martin's eggs, and builds its nest in their 

26 Bulletin of the 

houses. A continued campaign against this pest has been a means of pro- 
tection, however, and the colony is growing from year to year. 

Mr. Jacobs, in the spring of 1896, constructed a bird house, and owing 
to the growth of the colony, added to it another house in 1898, and still 
another in 1899. In 1902 his colony consisted of seventy two nests. 

The work also treats of their eggs; the young birds; construction of 
houses, etc. It is printed on fine paper with clear type, and has three 
illustrations showing the bird houses. The work is not only interesting, but 
of permanent value, and a credit to the author. We shall welcome the future 
numbers of "Gleanings." E. A. 


Jacobs, J. Warren. Gleanings No. II. The Story of a Martin Colony 
Illustrated). Published by the author at Waynesburg, Pa. Price, 35c. 

Knightj Wilbur C. The Birds of Wyoming. (Bull. No. 55, Wyoming Ex- 
periment Station. Laramie, Wyo.), 8 vo., pp. 174, numerous half-tone 
plates and text illustrations. Sent free on application to the Director, 
Experiment Station, Laramie, Wyo. 

Journal Maine Orn. Soc, Vol. V., No. 1. January, 1903. 

Educational Leaflet (illustrated), National Committee of Audubon Socie- 
ties. New York City, 1903. No. 1, The Night Hawk; No. 2, The 
Morning Dove. 

Ridgeicay, Robert. The Birds of North and Middle America. Part II. Bull. 
No. 50, U. S. Nat. Mus., Washington, 1902. 8 vo. XX.-I-834 pages ; 
xxii. plates. 



Editor of the Bulletin : 

The Red wing that you wish to know about made its winter quarters 
in a marsh which was covered with cat-tail stalks and long grass, and filled 
an area of about an acre. It was" also well protected by surrounding hills 
and trees. The first time I noticed this bird was on a cold day about the 
last of December, he was sitting on a cat-tail stalk, with his head snuggled 
down in his feathers, which appeared to be on end. 

As I approached he suddenly braced up and flew about two rods to 
Another stalk which convinced me that he was well and not wounded as I 
had supposed. About three weeks later I happened to pass this same marsh 
when I noticed him again sitting near the same place as before. This day 
I tried to catch him but could not succeed as I could not get closer than, 
twenty feet of him. 

He finally left the marsh but stayed away only for a short time. By 
this time I became thoroughly convinced that he could care for himself so 
I left the marsh returning only at intervals from then to the middle of March. 
To my surprise he lived through the Winter and was at last lost among 
the Spring migrants of his kind that arrived in March. 

B. Stowell. 

Pontiac, Mich. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 27 


An adult male American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) was captured 
at Waterford, Oakland County on January ist, 1903, by R. E. Miller. It 
died three days later in spite of the fact that it was given proper food. The 
bird had evidently lived upon frogs which were secured from a small stream 
in the marsh which did not freeze over. When caught a good sized frog 
could be felt in the oesaphaugus. 

The bird was in fine plumage and apparently uninjured but upon disec- 
ticn its right humurous proved to be broken near the condyles — thus depriv- 
ing it of the power of flight. Small shot were found imbedded in the walls 
of the abdomen. This specimen was mounted by L. J. Eppinger and is now 
in my collection. A. W. Blain, Jr. 


A male Whistling Swan (Olor C olumbianus) was taken at Whitmore 
Lake, Washtenaw County, on March 7th, 1903, by T. F. Taylor. The speci- 
men was in fine condition. A. B. Covert. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 


In the "Ornithologist and Oologist" of 1885 appeared my list of the birds 
of Kalamazoo County. This list annotated and embraced two hundred and 
thirty species. From that date until January, 1898, were added, with the aid 
of my friends, nine more species, which additions were recorded in the Janu- 
ary, '98, issue of the ''Bulletin" of the Mich. Orn. Club. 

Since that date, but one new species has been recorded in this country, 
the Black Tern {Hydrochclidon nigra Surinam ensis) , which appeared at Long 
Lake, about eight miles from Kalamazoo, in May, 1898. A pair of them built 
a nest and laid three eggs, which were noted on May 27 of that year. 

This is not brought to the notice of observers because of the rarity of 
the species, for the nesting of this bird is a common occurrence at the St. 
Clair Flats and several other points in the Great Lake Region, but it is noted 
here to show how birds will extend their range. This makes two hundred 
and forty species for Kalamazoo* County. Morris Gibbs, M. D., 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 



On May 31st, 1896, I found a nest and four fresh eggs of the Henslow's 
Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) near Hart's Lake, Calhoun County. The 
nest was situated in the tall grass in an open meadow, and is composed of 
dry grass. 

This set is a typical one, the eggs differing in appearance from any other 
sparrow, the nearest resemblance being that of the Grasshopper Sparrow. 
The eggs, which have a greenish gray cast, are beautifully marked with 
blotches and dots of brown and lilac. The set exhibits the following respective 
measurements : 74x52, 74x52, 74x53 and 76x52. The eggs are not as glossy 
as those of the Grasshopper Sparrow and are easily distinguished from them. 

'Battle Creek, Mich. E. Arnold. 

28 Bulletin of the 


The following arc extracts from my note book : 

June 17th. 1900 — Mouth of Middle Channel, St. Clair F'ats. I found a 
nest containing six Black Tern eggs, which could be easily separated into 
two sets of three, as two distinct types of eggs were represented. My brother 
took a nest of six eggs from this same island in 1899. This island is about 
100 by 200 feet. Total nests for island were: Black Tern 14, Pied-billed 
Grebe 2, Florida Gallinule 2, Common Tern 3, Least Bittern 1, Long-billed 
Marsh Wren 4. 

June i6tli, 1901 — Mouth of Middle Channel, St. Clair Flats. Took another 
nest of six Black Tern eggs from this island. These were also the property 
of two birds, ground color brown in three and remainder greenish, former 
under size and blunt, latter normal. Remarks: The six of 1900 were far 
advanced, so did not take them. Sets of four are much rarer than six and 
the few we have found were undoubtedly deposited by a single bird. 

Detroit, Mich. Walter C. Wood. 


Surprises are always a joy to the bird-student, and especially in the Win- 
ter, when our local bird fauna is so limited. 

On Jan. 14th of this year I received the greatest surprise of the season 
in the form of a Belted Kingfisher in the Water Works Park of this city. 
It semed very funny to see a bird which we associate with a June camp, 
flying around when the ground was covered with snow and the river with 
ice. Why he should stay at this dreary place during our long cold winter 
months is indeed a puzzle to me, the only feeding place which he could find 
being a small canal into which empties the warm, water from the water works, 
and therefore does not freeze over. C. F. Freirurger, Jr., 

Detroit, Mich., Feb. 21, 1903. 


Leon J. Cole is studying in Cambridge, Mass. Mr. Cole writes that he 
still considers himself a Michigander, and expects to be with us during 
our Summer meetings. 

Mr. Herbert E. Sargent has been elected curator of the Kent Museum 
at Grand Rapids. 

Hon. Chase S. Osborn. of Sault Ste. Marie, is now traveling in Europe. 
We have confidence in believing that he will upon his return join the ranks 
of the M. O. C, and give it his cordial support, as heretofore. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 29 


Field ornithology will interest a greater number of the members of the 
Michigan Ornithological Club than any other aspect of bird study. This will 
be also, without doubt, its greatest field of usefulness. The extensive collec- 
tions and libraries which are necessary for taxonomic and anatomical studies 
are beyond the reach of most of us. To know our limitations is one of the 
first conditions for determining what we should avoid, and at the same time 
what we may reasonably expect to accomplish. General aims are all very well 
in their proper places, but when it comes to practical concrete work a limited 
and definite aim is necessary. The Committee on Geographical Distribution 
of the Club has therefore decided to recommend that all the members of the 
Club make accurate and detailed notes for this season on the following birds : 

Brown Thrasher Baltimore Oriole 

Screech Owl Orchard Oriole 

Towhee Humming Bird. 

Full data regarding the following points is desired: Date of spring 
arrival, when first abundant, length of breeding season, date of fall departure, 
and relative abundance. In some cases an exact count can be made of the 
number of individuals observed. With regard to the Screech Owl it is 
especially important to record the exact number, and the color of each indi- 
vidual, whether red or gray, in order that the relative abundance of these 
two forms may be determined. The collection of this data is to be consid- 
ered of primary importance. In addition to this work all members, in Mich- 
igan especially, are also urged to work up their local list. Migration blanks 
will be furnished to all members on application to the Secretary of the Club. 
At the end of the season this data is to be sent to the Chairman at the 
address given below. This data will then be prepared for publication by the 
Committee and full credit will be given to each person for all data received. 

Chas. C. Adams. 

Museum, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 


In response to a circular letter sent out by Alex. W. Blain, Jr., the 
Michigan Ornithological Club was reorganized February 13th, 1903, at Mr. 
Blain's residence, 131 Elmwood Ave., Detroit. Mr. Blain was appointed 
Chairman of meeting and B. H. Swales, Temporary Secretary. 

The officers were elected as folows : A. B. Covert, of Ann Arbor, Presi 
dent; Dr. P. E. Moody, of Detroit, Vice-President; B. H. Swales, of De- 
troit, Secretary-Treasurer, and A. W. Blain, Jr., Editor and Business Manager. 

Discussion followed on the Club publication and it was decided to con- 
tinue the former "Bulletin." The annual dues were made one dollar, includ- 
ing the club organ. 

A Committee on Bird Protection was elected as follows : E. Arnold, 
of Battle Creek, Chairman; Prof. Walter B. Barrows, of the Agricultural 
College, J. B. Purdy, of Plymouth, and Wm. Dutcher, of New York City. 

Chas. C. Adams, N. A. Wood and A. B. Covert were appointed a com- 
mittee to revise the constitution. 

A letter was read from T. F. Mcllwraith announcing the death of his 
father, Thomas Mcllwraith, one of the oldest ornithologists of the Great Lake 

30 Bulletin of the 

Meeting adjourned to February 27. 

February 27.— Meeting held at the Detroit Museum of Art. President 
Covert in chair. About twenty members present. 

Report of Committee on Constitution read and adopted by articles and 

J. Clair Wood, of Detroit, and A. B. Covert, of Ann Arbor, were elected 
Associate Editors of the "Bulletin." 

A Committee on Geographical Distribution was elected consisting of 
Chas. C. Adams, Chairman ; Prof. W. B. Barrows and B. H. Swales. 

Director A. H. Griffith tendered the use of the Museum of Art as a 
place of meeting for which he was given a vote of thanks. 

Meeting adjourned to March 27. at Ann Arbor. 

March 13th. — Special meeting called by the President. Held at the resi- 
dence of Mr. Blain. _ 

Decided that all members be admitted to the Club whose names are 
now on the Secretary's book-. 

Bryant Walker, of Detroit, was elected an additional member of the 
Committee on Geographical Distribution. 

Discussion followed on the Constitution. Amendments and corrections 
were made and adopted. 

Meeting adjourned to March 27th at Ann Arbor. 

This meeting will be held in connection with the meetings of the Michi- 
gan Academy of Science. 



The fourth meeting of the Club was held at Ann Arbor on March ^jth 
in Prof. Adams' office in the U. of M. Museum. Two sessions were held. 
About thirty members were present including Prof. Walter B. Barrows, and 
other leading naturalists of the state. The full minutes will be published 
in the June issue. 



Vice-President PHILLIP E. MOODY, M. D. 

Secretary-Treasurer BRADSHAW H. SWALES 

Edward Arnold. Chairman. Prof. Walter B. Barrows 

James B. Purdy William Ditcher 


Prof. Chas. C. Adams, Chairman. Prof. Walter B. Barrows 

Brads haw H. Swales Bryant Walker 

Michigan Ornithological Club 31 

(Residence in Michigan, unless otherwise given.) 

Arnold, Edward, 126 Van Buren St., Battle Creek. 

Adams, Prof. Chas. C, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

Abbott, Gerald A., 945 Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Atkinson, George E., Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. 

Allison, Andrew, Labdell, La. 

Avery, George Edwin, Jr., Detroit. 

Blain, Alexander W., Jr., 131 Elmwood Ave., Detroi:. 

Blain, Dr. J. Harvey, Prescott, Arizona. 

Brotherton, Wilfred A., Rochester. 

Burroughs, C. H., Museum of Art, De'.roit. 

Butler, T. Jefferson, 79 Home Bank Bldg., Detroit. 

Burgess, Bruce K., 920 E. Washington, Ann Arbor. 

Barrows, Prof. Walter B., Agricultral College P. O. 

Boies Maj. A. H., Hudson. 

Balmer, James L., Marysville. 

Coughlan, Miss Anna, 320 Hudson Ave., Detroit. 

Covert, Adolphe B., Ann Arbor. 

Chapman, Theo. L., M. D., Harper Hospital, Detroit. 

Craven, Jesse T., 572 Hubbard Ave., Detroit. 

Cole, Leon J., 41 Wendell St., Cambridge, Mass. 

Clarkson, Mrs. S. W., 1816 Tappan St., Ann Arbor. 

Davison, Wm. A., 383 Morrell Ave., Detroit. 

Deane, Rutheven, 504 State St., Chicago, 111. 

Dutcher, Wm., 525 Manhattan Ave., New York City. 

Eddy, Newell A., 615 North Grant St., Bay City. 

Eppinger, Louis J., 516 Chene St., Detroit. 

Friedrich, George J., Brooklyn. 

Freiburger, Chas. F., 462 Cadillac Boul., Detroit. 

Frothingham, Earl H., 6 T 5 Monroe St., Ann Arbor. 

Gibbs, Morris, M. D., Kalamazoo. 

Grenell, Ralph W., Detroit. 

Griffith, Prof. A. H., Museum of Art, Detroit. 

Grose, H. D., Box 1261, Ann Arbor. 

Grant, Wilbur H., 625 Church St., Ann Arbor. 

Gates, Neal A., M. D., Dexter. 

Hinsdale, Prof. W. B., 611 Forest St., Ann Arbor. 

Hubel, Fred C, 112 Alexanderine Ave., Detroit. 

Hackett, Hugh A., John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Harris, Glenn V., 392 Bowen St., Detroit. 

Hull, Geo. M., Ypsilanti. 

Jacobs, J. Warren Waynesburg, Pa. 

Jones, Prof. Lynds, Oberlin, Ohio. 

K'leinstuck, Carl, Saxonia Farm, Kalamazoo. 

Kelsey, Mrs. F. A., Grosse He. 

Lord, F. H., Capac. 

Mummery, Edwin G., 24 E. Atwater St., Detroit. 

Moody, Phillip E., M. D., Harper Hospital, Detroit. 

McMahon, Miss Evangeline, 769 Jefferson Ave., Detroit. 

Miller, Raymond E., 31 Winder, Detroit. 

32 Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club 

Manton, Walter P., M. D., 32 Adams Ave., Detroit. 

Mackay, Alexander J., Ailsa Craig, Ontario. 

Newcomb, C. A.. Jr., 164 Putnam Ave.. Detroit. 

Purdy, James B., Plymouth. 

Pomeroy, Harry K., Kalamazoo. 

Preston, Clifford, Dexter. 

Purdum, C. C, M. D., Pawtucket, R. I. 

Price. Arthur E., Grant Park, 111. 

Ritchie. Archer P., 788 Champlain St., Detroit. 

Reighard, Prof. Jacob., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

Ricks. J. J., 548 South State St., Ann Arbor. 

Rarden. Charles B., Greenville. 

Saunders, Wm. E., London, Ontario. 

Sargent, Herbert E., Grand Rapids. 

Stowell, Bert., Pontiac. 

Silloway, Prof. P. M., Lewistown. Montana. 

Stockman. A. H., Arcadia. 

Spicer, Herbert H., 5852 Rosalie Court. Chicago, HI. 

Swales, Bradshaw H., 46 Larned St. W., Detroit. 

Thompson, Miss Harriet W., 714 South State St., Ann Arbor. 

Van Fossen, Dr. John, Yysilanti. 

Wood, J. Clair, 179 17th St., Detroit. 

Wood, Norman A., Museum, U. of M., Ann Arbor. 

Wood, Walter C, 179 17th St., Detroit. 

Watkins, L. D., Manchester. 

Watkins, L. Whitney, Manchester. 

Warren, Harry S., 149 Gladstone Ave., Detroit. 

Wisner, Charles, 1314-16 Chamber of Commerce, Detroit. 

Wolcott, Robert H., M. D., Univ. of Neb., Lincoln, Neb. 

Williams, F. R., 598 South State St., Ann Arbor. 

Walker, Bryant, 18 Moffit Block, Detroit 

Walker, Ellis B., 1030 East Huron St., Ann Arbor. 

White, Hon. Peter, Marquette. 

White, C. A., Detroit College of Medicine, Detroit. 

{ X 

1 J 


ljU L 


I rrV 


Vol. IV., No. 2. 

June, 1903. 




Published Quarterly 

In the Interests of Ornithology 

in the Great Lake Region. 

C. ) 


Application mads for entre 
as Second Class matter 

sit P. O. i 



Detroit Museum of Art {frontispiece) 34 

A List of the Land Birds of Southeastern Michi- 
gan. By B. H. Swales 35 

Local Heronies (1 halftone) By J. Claire Wood. 40 

Bubo virginianus in Michigan. By Edward 

Arnold 45 

Remarks on the Recent Capture of a Kirtland's 

Warbler in Michigan. By A. B. Covert 47 

Michigan Ornithologists (1st series). Halftones of 
J. Claire Wood, Dr. P. E. Moody, James B. 
Purdy and Norman A. Wood 50 

General Notes 51 

Editorial 52 

Recent Literature 54 

Notes from the Field and Museum (13 short 

articles) 56 

Minutes of Club Meetings gl 


is published on the fifteenth of March, June, September 
and December, by the Michigan Ornithological Club, at 
Detroit, Mich. 

Subscription: Fifty cents a year, including postage* 
strictly in advance. Single numbers, fifteen cents. Free 
to members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

All subscriptions, articles and communications in- 
tended for publication and all publications and i ooks for 
notice, should be addressed to the Editor, Alexander W. 
Blain, Jr., 131 Elmwood Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Articles of general interest relating to the bird life of 
the Great Lake Region are solicited. They should be in 
the hands of the editor not later than the 20th of the 
month preceding publication. 










Michigan Ornithological Club 

Published Quarterly in the Interests of Ornithology 

in the Grkat Lake Region. 

Vol,. IV. JUNE, 1903. No. 2. 




( Co?iti?iued irom page 17) . 

40. Trochilus colubris (Linn). 

Ruby-Throated Humming Bird. — Summer resident, fairly abundant. I 
have recorded it as early as April 28 (1902), and as late as May 12 (1894). 
However, the first week in May generally sees the bird here. Departs about 
the middle of September. In 1893 I saw several as late as October 2nd. I 
found a late set of two fresh eggs on July 15th, 1896. 

41. Tyrannus tyrannus (Linn). 

King Bird. — A common summer resident. I seldom see the bird until 
about May 3rd, but occasionally it arrives in late April — April 27th, 1889, 
April 30, 1896, and April 30, 1897. Seldom seen after September first. 

42. Myiarchus crinitus (Linn). 

Crested Flycatcher. — Fairly abundant summer resident — apparently 
more so than ten years ago. Arrives the latter part of April — my earliest 
bird came April 9, 1889. Departs September 10-15. 

43. Sayornis phoebe (Lath). 

Phoebe — Our most abundant Tyrannidae. Arrives from March 16 (1902), 
to April 3 (1891). Departs about the 10th of October. My latest record is 
October 20, 1889. 

44. Sayornis saya (Bonap) . 

Say's Phoebe — One bird taken at Grosse Isle, 1853, according to Rev. 
Chas. Fox. Given in Miles' list of i860. 


45. Contopus virens (Linn). 

Wood Pewee — Abundant summer resident. Varies to a considerable 
extent in its dates of arrival. In [890 and 1902 I observed my first birds May 
3rd, and 111 [896 end [899 not until May 14th. Departs about September 
[5 20. My latest record is October 5, 11X89. 

46. Empidonax flaviventris (Baird). 

Yellow-Bellied Flycatcher. — A rare migrant. I have never seen the 
bird, but it lias been taken in Wayne County by E. W. Durfee. (Cook, Birds 
of Mich., 96. ) 

47. Empidonax virescens (Vieill). 

Green-Crested Flycatcher, — A fairly common summer resident arriving 
about the middle of May. Departs the latter part of August. Generally fre- 
quents thicker portions of the woodlands than other flycatchers. 

48. Empidonax traillii alnorum (Brewst). 

Alder Flycatcher. — An abundant summer resident breeding commonly 
in the orchards and thickets bordering the woods. I have seen it as early as 
May 6 (1894), but generally not until the middle of the month. Departs 
September 10-17. 

40. Empidonax minimus ( Baird). 

Least Flycatcher. — Fairly common summer resident. I have never seen 
it before April 29th (1900), generally not until May 15. Departs during the 
fir>t week in September. 

50. Otocoris alpestris praticola (llensh). 

Prairie Horned Lark. — Resident. However, a number of the species 
are migrants. I have seen the bird common in every month of the year. 
Breeds in March and April. 1 found a late set June 19, 1895. 

51. Cyanocitta cristata (Linn). 

Blue- Jay. — Resident, abundant. 

52. Corvus corax principalis ( Ridgw). 

Northern Raven. — "Formerly common in Wayne County" (J. S. Tib- 
bets). Now, probably extinct, J. Claire Wood saw a pair in 1885. Mcll- 
wraith in his "Birds of Ontario" (276), records a bird in his collection that 
was shot at the St. Clair Flats, lie was informed that it was an occasional 
visitor there in late fall. 1 have never heard of the occurrence of this bird 
there in fifteen years. 

53 Corvus americanus (And). 

American Crow. — A portion of the species are resident but the main body 
are migrants. Abundant. N 

54. Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linn). 

BOBOLINK.— Abundant summer resident. My dates of arrival are May 11, 
1889; May 11, [890; April 29, [891'; April 27, 1892; April 27, 1893; May 5, 
1804; May 5. 1895; April 26, [896; May 6, [897; May 7, 1899; May 13. 1900; 
May 12, [901; April 20, 1002; May 3, 1903. Departs about middle of Sep- 
tember — latest date Sept. 23, 1902. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 37 

55. Molothrus ater (Bodd). 

Cowbird. — Common summer resident. Arrives about A [arch 20, lingers 
as late as November 3rd. I have one record of the bird in winter when I 
saw several in January, 1890, feeding with the English sparrows in the city. 

56. Agelaius phoeniceus (Linn). 

Red-Winged Blackbird. — Very abundant summer resident. My earliest 
birds were seen February 26, 1891 ; latest arrivals April 1, 1900. The main 
body are gone generally by October 20th, but \ have seen flocks as late as 
November 9th (1902). 

57. Sturnella magna (Linn). 

Meadow Lark. — Common summer resident ; a few are resident. Arrives 
from March 5 (894), to March 26 (1899). Depart during the latter part of 
October. A few linger until November Tst. 

58. Icterus spurius (Linn.) 

Orchard Oriole. — Not as abundant as /. galbula. Summer resident — 
rather a late arrival — generally not seen until May 10-15. I have seen it as 
early as May 5 (1901). 

59. Icterus galbula (Linn). 

Baltimore Oriole. — Common summer resident. My earliest dates of 
arrival are April 25, 1896, 1899, latest May 7, 1900. Departs in early Sep- 

60. Scolecophagus carolinus (Mull). 

Rusty Blackbird. — Very abundant during the migrations — March and 
October. J. Claire Wood shot one bird January 25, 1891, near the River 
Rouge, which is the only winter record. 

61. Quiscalus suiscula aeneus (Ridgw). 

Bronzed Grakle. — Abundant summer resident. Arrives usually during 
the second week in March, although in 1891 they came February 24, in 1896 
not until March 29. Departs the latter part of October. Some years a few 
linger until November — in 1901, the 3rd. One winter record in December 
of 1894. 

62. Cocothraustes vespertinus (Coop). 

Evening Grosbeak. — A rare straggler. T have never noted it except in 
March and April. A flock of about two hundred birds were first observed by 
J. Claire Wood, March 3rd, 1889, north of Detroit. These were very tame and 
unsuspicious and lingered in the same locality until the 25th of April. I saw 
one bird on November 16, 1889. In April, 1890, several were seen by Mr. 
Wood. Since 1890 none have been seen here. Mr. Samuel Spicer of Good- 
rich, Genessee Co., informs me that a female of this species was seen in 
January, 1903, on his farm, remaining for several days. 

63. Carpodacus purpureus (Gmel). 

Purple Finch. — Not common, migrant, usually seen in April. My earli- 
est records are March 1, (1903), March 6 (1892). Latest date May 8 (1897). 
Seldom noted in the fall. 

38 Bulletin of the 

Loxia curvirostra minor i Brehm). 

American Crossbill. — A rare winter visitor. I have never seen the bird 
here personally. Mr. Purdy has noted it at Plymouth in winter and early 
spring. Two were taken in Wayne County in January, 1892, by D. Sanderson. 
The absence of pine pr bably accounts for the absence of this bird and L. 
leucoptera in Wayne County. 

65. Loxia lencoptera (Gmel). 

White Winged Crossbill. — Very rare winter visitor. One pair were shot 
near Plymouth, according to Mr. Purdy. However, it has been taken in 
Oakland and I Counties, north of here. Mr. Samuel Spicer records 

a pair breeding at Goodrich, Genessee County, in 1888. (O. & O., 1889). 

66. Acanthis linaria (Linn). 

Redpoll. — An irregular visitor in winter and spring. Not common. 

67. Spinus tristis ( Linn). 

American Goldfinch. — Common resident, not as abundant in winter. 

68. Spinus pinus (Wils). 

Pine Siskin. — An irregular visitor in winter, occasionally in spring and 
fall. It is common some years, in others entirely absent. 

69. Passerina nivalis (Linn). 

Snowflake. — Abundant during some winters, in others apparently ab- 
ut. I have noted it as early as October 31 (1902), and as late as March 16, 
( 1003). Abundant during the winter of 1901 and 1902. 

70. Calcarius lapponicus (Linn). 

Lapland Longspur. — A rare winter and summer visitor. Neither Mr. 
Wood or myself have ever observed the bird here. Mr. Alexander records 
it during ( Butler's "Birds of Indiana." page 930) the winters of 1891 and 
1892 and springs of 1892, 1893, 1894, and 1895, near Plymouth. Mcllwraith 
(Birds of Ontario) records a large flock seen in early May at Mitchell's Bay, 
on the Canadian side of the Flats, and a number were secured. 

71. Poocaetes gramineus (Gmel). 

Vesper Sparrow. — Abundant summer resident. Arrives usually in early 
April, sometimes a- early a- March 19 (1897), March 20, 1892. Departs in 
early November. I have seen it as late a- November 24, 1889, a mild fall, 
and November 10, 1902. 

J2. Ammodramus sandwichensis savanna (Wils). 

Savanna Sparrow. — A fairly common migrant. April, September and 
October, more abundant during the fall. 

73: Ammodramus savannarum passerinus (Wils). 

Grasshopper Sparrow. — A rather rare summer resident. It may be more 
common than supposed, owing t<> it< -^eluded and skulking habits. J. Claire 

Michigan Ornithological Club 39 

Wood added the bird to the list of breeding birds of Wayne County by finding 
a nest and four eggs May 28, 1902. Air. Purdy says "increasingly abundant 
at Plymouth." 

74. Ammodramus henslowii (Aud). 

Henslow's Sparrow. — Rare summer resident. Mr. J. B. Purdy records 
a nest found July 27, 1893, near Plymouth (Auk, 1897, 220). W. E. Saunders 
observed several near the mouth of the Thames River, Ontario, bordering 
the Flats, also two at Sarnia. July 2. (Bull. Mich. Ornith. Club. Vol. 2). 

75. Ammodramus nelsoni (Allen) . 

Nelson's Sparrow. — One record only — J. Claire Wood shot an adult 
male Sept. 27, 1893, on a mudrlat bordering the Rouge River, which is now 
in my collection. , 

76. Chondestes grammacus (Say). 

Lark Sparrow. — A rare summer resident. We have seldom noted it of 
late years. Mr. J. C. Wood, E. W. Durfee and myself have found it nesting 

yj. Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forst). 

White-Crowned Sparrow. — Common migrant in May and October. I 
have seen it as early as April 27 (1889) and as late as May 21 (1899). 

78. Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmel). 

White-Throated Sparrow. — Very common during the migrations — April 
and early May, September and October. More aboundant than Z. leucophyrs. 

79. Spizella monticola (Gmel) . 

Tree Sparrow. — Abundant winter resident, remaining as late in the spring 
as April 7 (1891 and 1901), and April 5 (1903). Returns in late October. 

80. Spizella socialis (Wills). 

Chipping Sparrow. — Common summer resident. Arrives generally in 
early April, but T have seen it as early as March 29 (1891). I have seen a 
few as late as October 25 (1893), but the bulk of the species leave much 

81. Spizella pusilla (Wils) . 

Field Sparrow. — Abundant summer resident. Arrives usually in early 
April, sometimes during the last part of March. In 1903 I saw my first birds 
March 19, an unusually early date. Departs in late September. October 19, 
1889, is my latest record date. 

82. Junco hyemalis (Linn). 

Slate-Colored Junco. — A common migrant, a number remain throughout 
the winter. Junco drifts from north about the 15th of October. I have 
observed them as late in the spring as May 7 (1889), but the middle of 
April generally sees the bulk gone. 

40 Bulletin of the 

83. Melospiza melodia (Wils) . 

Song Sparrow. — Common summer resident. A few are resident in 
certain favored localities, generally near the Detroit River. Arrives from 
March 3 (1901), to as late as March 2.7 (1896). Departs mainly in late Octo- 
ber. A few can be seen as late as November 10 (1901-1902). 

84. Melospiza lincolni (And). 

Lincoln Sparrow. — A rare transient during the migrations. J. Claire 
Wood shot a male October 1, 1900. which is now in my collection. 

85. Melospiza georgiana (Lath) . 

Swamp Sparrow. — A fairly common migrant — a few may possibly 
breed. J. Claire Wood saw a pair June 8, 1902, in an inland swamp, which 
probably had a nest near by. Mr. Purdy says that it breeds at Plymouth. I 
have found it more common in October. 

86. Passerella iliaca (Merr). 

Fox Sparrow. — Not a common migrant, and according to my experience, 
not as abundant as it was in the 8o's. Appears from March 23 (1889) to 
April 13 (1889). Noted in fall as late as October 13, (1889). Some seasons 
pass and I do not see a single bird. 

87. Pipilo erythrophthalmus (Linn). 

Towhee. — Common summer resident. Appears from March 16, 1894, my 
earliest arrival, until the end of March. Departs about the 20th of October. 
I have seen it as late as November 3 (1901). Have never observed it in 

88. Cardinalis cardinalis (Linn). 

Cardinal. — A rare transient visitor generally seen only in winter. I have 
but few records of the bird here — November, 1897, December 8, 1899, January 
26, 1901, February 22, 1902, January 1, 1903. I saw one male May 19, 1901, 
in my yard at Detroit — the only bird noted except in winter. 

{To be continued.) 



Of the twelve species of herons that breed in the United States the Great 
Blue (Arda herodias) has the most extended range, nesting colonies being 
common from Washington to southern California, Maine to Florida. They 
are, perhaps, more abundant along the gulf coast than elsewhere, some of the 
colonies numbering thousands of nests. As may be supposed they are com- 
mon throughout Michigan and nearly every county can claim at least one 
colony. That the Great Blue Heron bred more abundantly in former years, 
there can be no doubt, and, accepting the authority of old residents, all the 
townships bordering the Detroit river contained colonies. The nearest to this 
city, of which I have authentic information, was about six miles from the 

Michigan Ornithological Club 41 

present limits in Ecorse, but this ceased to exist some thirty years ago. A 
rather large community flourished in Brownstown up to ten years ago, when 
the cutting away of the timber drove them elsewhere. I know of but four 
existing colonies at the present writing, and of these I have failed to visit the 
one in Washtenaw County. Two are in Wayne County and about three miles 
apart, but their feeding grounds lie in opposite directions, one patronizing the 
Huron River and the other what is known as the River Rouge. 

I did not learn of this Huron colony until last March, when I made a 
survey of the woods that contained it. Five nests were counted — one in a 
sycamore and the remainder in elms. The farmers could tell me nothing 
except that last year a severe storm blew some of the nearly grown young 
from the nests which they captured, and also that in 1901 the nests numbered 

The other herony was found on April 22, 1900, but as this was too early 
for eggs, I favored it with another visit May 6. The nests were in sycamore 
trees and, like all I have seen, were as far out on the branches as safety would 
permit. They were four in number — two in a living tree and the remainder 
in one entirely dead and consequently inaccessible. The nests examined were 
85 and 90 feet above the ground by actual measurement, and about 30 feet 
lower than the other two. They contained three and four eggs, and as incu- 
bation had commenced these sets were doubtless complete. During the fol- 
lowing winter both trees were cut down, and only two pair nested in the 
vicinity during 1901-2. These were probably the birds that occupied the dead 
tree and were not molested. As I have not disturbed them let us hope they 
will continue to nest for many years. The chances seem good as the nests 
are in high sycamores and the birds so wary that I have never been within 
gun shot of them. 

While on a trip north in the winter of 1898, I noticed a number of large 
nests from the car window. This was in Springfield Township, Oakland 
County, and is what we now call the Clarkston Herony. Not having seen a 
nesting community of these birds I determined to investigate this one, and 
made the trip on May 11, 1900. A large herony is a grand sight, especially 
when viewed for the first time. As I approached, the birds arose by hun- 
dreds and circled overhead, uttering loud honking cries. With heads drawn 
up to the shoulders, necks protruding in lumps, legs trailing behind, and 
great stretch of wings beating the air with slow even strokes, they presented 
a spectacle never to be forgotten. Soon assured of my friendly disposition 
they settled on nests and branches and became indifferent to my presence, 
except when a twig cracked ; they then arose with cries of alarm but quieted 
down in a few moments. The most noticeable characteristic was an absence 
of motion. Their bodies remained like statues and nearly all movement was 
performed by head and neck, but in a slow, gliding manner decidedly snake- 
like. Very few males were present. One of these alighted on the side of a 
nest and fed its mate by reguritation. Whether this was the regular custom, 
or the female leaves the nest for the purpose of feeding, or the birds share the 
labor of incubation, could not be determined in the short half hour I was 
in their company. However. I am inclined to the first theory as only females 
were sitting, and there seemed to be one on each nest. In birds that colonize 
for the purpose of breeding one would expect to find the most amiable social 
relations, but such was not the case with these herons. For a female to en- 


Bulletin of the 

croach upon the territory of another was a declaration of war, and it was 
always the intruder that turned tail. So large were the nests that the setting 
hirds were entirely concealed from the ground below, hut the erect heads and 




(Lower nest 92 feet above the ground.) 

long necks of those in neighboring trees were visible. Probably this was 
not the natural pose, but one of expectation and uneasiness. The nests were 
scattered over about four acres of elm and ash trees, and ranged from one to 

Michigan Ornithological Club 43 

fourteen per tree, although eight was the usual number. Had it not been a 
case of catch the train or stay all night 1 would have devoted a day to this 
colony as much interesting and valuable data could have been secured. 

A change in train time during the year encouraged a party of us to make 
all preparations for an oological raid upon the herons, and this was executed 
May 9, 1901. Imagine the disappointment when our destination was reached 
— the herony had been abandoned. Silence reigned and even most of the nests 
destroyed by winter winds. The cause was soon ascertained. Scattered about 
were skeletons and feathers, mostly the remains of young birds. We knew 
what had happened. Young herons remain in the nest until nearly large as 
their parents, and at this stage the farmers had enjoyed a wholesale slaughter. 
However, the herony was not entirely deserted. Amid this story of courage 
and woe there sat a young horned owl (Bubo virginianiis) close beside an old 
heron's nest about which clung a profusion of owl feathers. In silence we 
were retracing our steps when our melancholy musings were interrupted by 
a familiar houk and a heron glided into the woods from a great height. We, 
of course, made for the point, but without enthusiasm until the new colony 
was actually sighted. Sad experience had taught these birds the wickedness 
of man, and they left as we approached and perched upon the tamarack trees, 
a quarter of a mile away, where they remained all day, only an occasional 
individual returning to inspect our doings, but always from high in the air. 
Sycamores are the favorite trees, but we saw none in this wood. The seventy- 
two nests were placed in oak, elm and ash, but mainly the latter. As in the 
old herony the greatest number was in an elm and consisted of ten nests, 
while there was the usual number per tree. They were all similar in appar- 
ance, being deeply hollowed and composed entirely of sticks so compactly and 
strongly interlaced that it was no easy task to dislodge one. This was a 
necessary precaution as they swayed with the lightest breeze. Their average 
height was 85 feet above the ground. The usual number of eggs per set was 
four or five, and six was more common than three. Each set was very uni- 
form in size, shape and color shade, plainly indicating that in no case had more 
than one bird laid in one nest. Incubation varied from slight to far advanced. 
The only fresh egg was in one of these nests in an ash tree. One of the re- 
maining nests held five eggs, while the other was occupied by two of the Red- 
tailed hawk (Butco borealis) upon the point of hatching. We did not take 
many eggs, and returning to explore this woods the latter part of the month, 
we passed through the herony and could plainly hear the young in the nests. 
Having never seen a heron in the down I climbed to a nest with three young 
and an unfertile egg. Although the birds could not have been more than a 
day old we heard their cries for food before ascending the tree. 

Our next visit was May 3rd, 1902, and we found the colony reduced to 
40 nests and six the greatest number in one tree — an ash this time. Very 
little climbing was done. I ascended a large ash to the three nests it con- 
tained and I secured a set of four and two of five — all fresh. Twenty feet 
below the lowest nest and just sixty-five feet above the ground, the main 
trunk divided into two large branches and, while lowering the herons' eggs 
T noticed a male Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) carry food into a knot hole at 
this fork. The depth of this hollow was three inches, and its width five. 
The nest was composed entirely of rabbit and mouse hair and held eight 
slightly incubated eggs, one of which was cracked. I also flushed a Crow 

44 Bulletin of the 

from her two eggs, and two newly hatched young. The nest was about 
thirty feet up and the lowest in the herony. While most of the party were 
busy with the herons, I spent some hours watching a pair of Yellow-bellied 
Sapsuckers {Sphyrapicus varius.) They continually went the rounds of all 
suitable nesting sites, but always within the boundaries of the herony. I 
finally concluded they would occupy a dead birch or elm stub. My last trip 
was May 30, and made especially to look up the sapsujkers. They were at 
home in the elm which was about forty feet high, and between two lar.uc ash 
trees occupied by heron-* nests. The cavity was seven inches deep and tiiree 
by five in diameter, and the entrance just one foot below the stub top. It 
contained six slightly incubated eggs. I saw no sapsuckers elsewhere in the 
woods, and am positive no crows were breeding except the pair in the colony.* 
Thus concludes my experience with this much persecuted and very in- 
teresting community of herons. It is useless to lament the wholesale slaugh- 
ter as extermination is far in advance of adequate protection. From more 
than two hundred nests on the first visit it has decreased to forty,* but as the 
bird> are now thoroughly acquainted with man's wonton cruelty let us hope 
for a brighter future. 

Detroit. Mich. 

I would not credit to socialistic tendency the presence of the five species found nest- 
ing. Surroundings most congenial to their tastes might have been the cause, hut I am in- 
clined to the opinion of protective influence. It is certain no safer site could have been 
chosen, as among the big herons and nests these lesser people escaped notice except from 
prying oological eyes. The discovery of these crows caused the most surprise, as hringing 
into association the two reverses — herons nest in communities, hut are otherwise more or 
less solitary, while crows do not nest in colonies, but otherwise are more or less gregarious. 

Since writing the above I have visited the three colonies for 10h.°>, with the following 
results: Huron River. •"> nests: River Rouge, 1 nest; Clarkston, 19 nests, exclusive of 5 
in the old herony. Some 'ntercstint; data was secured for future use. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 45 



The Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) is quite common throughout 
the state at all seasons. My observations cover principally Calhoun and 
Kalamazoo Counties where the bird is very common. The female is larger 
than the male, more powerful and according to my observations much more 
vicious in the defence of its home and young. 

This species is partial to river bottom land and prefers to nest close to 
running streams or water. Although hollow trees are fairly abundant where 
I hunted, the bird prefers to nest outside and lays its eggs in old nests of 
red-shouldered and red-tailed hawks, sometimes taking possession of f crows 
nests. Have found nests with but one egg badly incubated, once with one 
egg only addled. Two eggs are the usual set and twice I have found nests 
with three young. 

A sharp rap on the tree trunk will usually scare the parent off the eggs or 
young and unless the eggs are almost hatched or the young just out of the 
shell the parents keep a respectable distance away. Twice I have been struck 
on the back by the enraged female, each time the nest contained young just 
hatched. The birds observed by me usually commence laying the latter part 
of February. 

This bird is known by hunters and farmers as the cat and hoot owd, and 
is the most distructive and powerful of its family in North America. Tt 
destroys poultry, rabbits, ducks (wild and domestic) crows, skunks, rats, 
mice, moles, flickers, red-headed woodpeckers, bob-whites, grouse, woodcock, 
squirrels, etc., in fact, it is king of the woods and takes its tribute night and 
day. In hunting for its nest I have often been guarded to the vicinity by 
the noise of a flock of crows chasing it. It takes tribute of the crow at night 
and that bird recognizes it as its enemy and pursues it whenever it makes its 
appearance in the day time. I have seen as many as forty crows following 
it in the woods from tree to tree. 

When the nest contains young it is usually well stocked with various 
parts of birds and beasts, usually the hind quarters, generally the head is eaten 
first. One nest I found with young early in April, 1902, had the wing of a 
crow, the back of a white buck, several hind quarters of rats and mice, and 
the hind part of a rabbit — -several pounds in all. From my journal I take the 
following notes : 

These birds are constant residents where ever found, and if the woods is 
tolerably large can usually be found in some tree the year around close to the 
nesting tree — the male usually occupies a hollow tree during the day is un- 
sociable, and two pairs rarely occupy the same woods. Both birds are rather 
noisy during January, February and March, the nesting period. 

I have shot horned owls the year around, and have never found one in 
poor condition, which is proof that it is able to procure abundance of food at 
all times. Incubation lasts about four weeks, and both birds sit on the eggs, 
the female the greater portion of the time. On March 2nd, 1895, ni company 
with Mr. Gorwin, of Vicksburg, T found a nest in a tamarack tree near Barton 
Lake, about three miles southwest of Vicksburg, Kalamazoo County. The 
nest was a large one placed about fift^v feet up. The female left nest as I 
struck the tree with my spurs. Set consisted of two eggs incubated about 

46 Bulletin ok the 

one-fourth. Female flew away and made no noise. Saw two males flying in 
the direction of the nest shortly before I found it. Time, 4 p. m. Weather, 

March 5th, 1895, Calhoun County, about two miles northwest of Penfield, 
I took two almost fresh eggs from a nest in a tamarack tree in a swamp. 
Nest large and conspicuous, and not more than forty feet up. Female left 
nest as soon as I struck the tree. There was snow on the edge of the nest, 
which was flat, made of large and small sticks and lined with a few feathers 
from the breast of the female. Saw but one of the birds. Time, 10.30 a. m.. 
was alone. 

March 28th, 1895, Kaiamazco County. Nest in large white oak sixty feet 
up — an old nest of the red-shoulder hawk. Season of 1894, took two young 
Butcos from it. The female Bubo flew from it as I struck the tree. Nest 
made of sticks and twigs lined with leaves, contained two eggs almost fresh. 
Saw both birds in the vicinity of the nest; believe they were the same pair 
I robbed March 2nd, 1895. Nest was across the lake from old one on high 
ground, the woods was medium sized. The eggs were about the same size 
as the former set. A late nesting. 

February 27th, 1896, Calhoun County. Took two fresh eggs from same 
nest as I took set March 5th, 1895, in tamarack tree, two miles from Penfield. 
The eggs were warm, but I did not see the parent. Xest well lifted with 
feathers from parent's breast, feathers also clung to the surrounding branches 
and could be plainly seen from the ground. Parents noisy in wood while I 
climbed to the nest. Size of eggs 2.24x1.92 and 2.27x1.91. 

March 24th, 1896. Two and one-half miles east of Penfield, close to 
river on bottom land. Eggs laid on bark and dust in a large broken top of 
a soft maple, thirty feet up. Nest contained one addled egg and one young 
bird scantly feathered. Besides the lining of feathers the nest contained the 
hind quarters of a rabbit. A large male bird flew around the adjoining limbs 
uttering their peculiar Boo-hoo-o-o. The eggs were dark cream in color and 
quite glossy. The female wore a very dark plumage. 

March 25th, 1896, near Scott's, Kalamazoo County, in a swamp close to 
a trout brook, near to a railroad track. Nest fifty feet from ground in the top 
of a yellow birch. The nest contained three birds, all different sizes, one 
about four days old, one ten days and the other about two weeks. The two 
largest of the young snapped their bills at me. The female also flew around 
snapping her bills. Weather, very cold. 

March 27th, 1896. Pine Lake, Ingam County. Nest sixty feet up in a 
tamarack, very flimsy and shallow, made mostly of tamarack and other twigs. 
Female left nest upon my approach. Down was hanging from nest and 
adjacent limbs. Contained one addled egg. 

February 17th. '897. Nest in a dead tamarack, near Vick>1nirg, Kala- 
mazoo County. Forty-five feet up contained one fresh egg. Nest made of 
sticks, no lining. The single egg was heavily stained, I visited the nest several 
times, after parent had apparently deserted the nest. 

April 8th. 1807. took two eggs, incubated about ten days; 55 feet up in 
an old hawk's nest in a soft maple tree two and one-half miles east of Scott, 
Kalamazoo. Parents noisy — very late for their eggs. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 47 

This year I went March ist, with a friend after the horned owls. Scared 
one out of an old sycamore tree ; but it contained no eggs. Scared another 
off of an old nest in a beech tree, it also was empty. 

On March 4th, in company with Mr. Corwin, visited nest near Vicksburg. 
Nest close to stream, situated in crotch of large white oak, sixty feet up. The 
two eggs were incubated about two weeks. The nest was very old. The 
female left before we landed the boat about fifty feet away. I had a hard 
climb after the eggs as the tree was covered with old bark very thick and 
brittle. After the female left nest a lot of crows pursued her around the 
woods, chasing her back to her nest as I was putting eggs in a cigar box pre- 
paring to come back to terra-firma. 

From this it will be seen that so far as my observations go this bird 
invariably choses open nests in trees, lays from one to three eggs, usually 
two. Is partial to swamp and bottom land and loves to be near to water. 

Battle Creek, Mich., March 7, 1903. 




On the 15th day of June, 1903, Mr. Earl Frothingham, an assistant in 
the Museum of the University of Michigan, added another specimen of the 
rare warbler D. Kirtlandi to the growing list of that bird in tfae middle west, 
making the 23rd specimen recorded and the 7th for the State of Michigan. 
This last specimen, a male, was taken in the Western part of Oscoda County 
near the boundary line of Crawford County. This section of country is a 
part of the Canadian Life Zone of Lower Michigan. Mr. Frothingham tells 
me that he saw and could have easily taken three more specimens, that they 
were in full song and every indication pointed that they were nesting close 
by. In speaking of its song, habits, etc., Mr. Frothingham gives me the fol- 
lowing verbal account : 

The immediate section of the country where we observed these birds 
was covered with tall scattering Jack Pines interspersed with - Poplars and 
low underbrush consisting of Blackberries, wild Raspberries, briars, oaks, 
fallen trees, decaying logs, and tall sentinel like dead pines, blackened and 
seared by forest fires. In many places could be found a luxuriant growth 
of sweet ferns, wintergreens, and a rank growth of grass, in others, the 
grass was stunted and scattering. Small Norway Pines growing in clumps, 
dead trees, still standing stripped of their bark and limbs and whitened by 
the elements, many small swamp like spots covered with spagnumn-mass, 
and a low gflowth of cedar trees. Level tracts of country consisting of a 
light sandy soil, struggling weeds, and a weak growth of grass, the whole 
sparcely covered with stunted Norway Pines. This last being the charac- 
teristic "Norway Plains" of the pine region of Michigan. 

In this varied tangled growth Mr. Frothingham found D. Kirtlandi in 
company with the following birds : Black-throated Green Warbler, Red 
Start, Juncos feeding young, Hermit Thrushes in full song, Black-throated 
Blue Warblers, Nashville Warblers, Solitary Vireos, Black and White Creep- 

48 Bulletin of the 

ing Warblers, Three-toed Woodpeckers, Chestnut Sided Warblers, Yellow- 
bellied Sapsuckers, and Maryland Yellow-throats. Spruce Grouse followed 
by their young trailed over the spagnumn moss and Belted Kingfishers 
sounded their rattle from the banks of the Au Sable. Mr. Frothingham 
states that the bird reminded him very much of the Yellow-rumped Warbler 
in action, moving sideways on the smaller limbs and keeping up a jerking 
motion of its tail with a constant chipping as if concerned about its nest — 
then with a sudden motion it would decend to the ground only to reappear 
through the tangled mass of ferns and under-brush — perch himself on some 
blackened stubb, and with head thrown back pour fourth a loud clear song 
of liquid musical notes, the tones being very full. Mr. Frothingham likened 
this song to that of the Maryland Yellow-throat, saying that both birds were 
present and in full song, but that a difference was easily detected and that 
he never mistook them. He also speaks of one instance wherein he had 
discovered a nest containing young of the White-throated sparrow, the 
mother sparrow was very solicitous in uttering her protests and was soon 
joined by a varied company in which was included a D Kirtlandi who 
became very much excited and with jerking tail and loud excited chips, 
uttered rapidly, attempted to drive the intruder away. This record adds 
one more link to verify my prediction of some years ago that Kirtlandi 
would be found nesting in the Canadian Zone of Lower Michigan. At Ann 
Arbor, on May 15th, 1875, I took my first specimen of Kirtlands Warbler, 
the condition of this bird's ovaries showed that the eggs would have been 
laid in about two weeks. If the bird had traveled at the rate of forty miles 
a day and had taken a direct line north about four days would have been 
consumed in making the journey to the Canadian Zone of Lower Michigan 
which is about 160 miles direct north from this point. It is a wel knov/i 
fact that birds do not travel in direct lines, but have well established path- 
ways that usually follow river valleys. My studies go to show that all of 
the specimens of Kirtlandi (with one exception — that of Battle Creek) taken 
in the state entered from the basin of old Lake Erie (or as Mr. Frank Leverett 
terms it, Lake Maumee), coming up the valley of the Huron river, crossing 
in Livingston county to the headwaters of the river Saginaw, thence down 
the valley of that river to the mouth of the Tittabawasse river, ascending 
the valley of that river to Lakes Houghton and Higgins. These Lakes being 
in the southern portion of the Canadian Zone. From Houghton Lake the 
birds enter the valley of the headwaters of the south branch of the Au Sable, 
preceding down the valley of that river until they reach the main stream. 
1 k-re a portion find their summer home, others pass on up the valley of the 
Au Sable to its headwaters, crossing here to the valley of the Indian river 
in Otsego county, descending the valley of the Indian river through the Caro- 
linian Zone of the northmost point of Lower Michigan, crossing the Straits 
of Mackinaw to the Canadian Zone of the Upper Peninsular. Let us take 
my first specimen, she was passing this point (Ann Arbor), May 15th the 
condition of her ovaries showed that in about fourteen days her eggs must 
be laid, to follow the route of these river valleys she must travel about 280 
miles. If she traveled at the rate of forty miles per day seven days would 
be consumed in making the journey, she would arrive at her nesting place 
May 22. Now give her seven days to build her nest and it brings the date 
May 29, four days are consumed in laying the eggs, this brings our date 

Michigan Ornithological Club 49 

June 2nd — fourteen days are passed in brooding the eggs — this brings our 
date June 17th. During the brooding time all Held naturalists know that the 
males of all birds are beside themselves with joy and wild with song, so 
much so, that it seems at times as if their little breasts must burst with 
gladness ; is it the knowledge that reproduction of their kind is about to 
take place? We cannot tell, but we can think. The female sets close now, 
hardly leaving the nest to feed. 

Mr. Frothingham was on the ground June 15th, he saw no female, the 
males were wild with song, singing everywhere. He tells me, "it seems as 
if a dozen were singing at a time," he saw and thoroughly recognized three 
and secured the fourth. He is an accurate observer, a museum worker and 
a fine field naturalist, able to name three-fourths of our Michigan warblers 
by their songs and call notes. When I asked him why he did not secure 
more specimens, he answered like a true gentleman, "I did not feel justified 
in killing more than was absolutely necessary to identify the species." I 
would to heaven there were more like him that we could say it of all. 

My studies prove to me that these birds are mated before leaving their 
winter homes. We know that the males precede the females by about two 
weeks, passing this point May 1st; the females pass here May 15th. In the 
case of every specimen taken the ovaries have been iexamined and were 
fertile, proving that copulation must have taken place before the migrations 
commenced. Accurate observations with domestic birds teach us that eggs 
to prove fertile must be impregnated at least two weeks before being laid. 
Closer attention should be given these points. What we need and want 
is more accurate field workers, not closet specia-makers. There are too 
many of that kind at work now and it is hard to get birds enough to go 
around so that they can all have one to name. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 


Bulletin of the 









Michigan Ornithological Club 51 


We are pleased to welcome to our membership roll no less an ornitholo- 
gist than Otto Widman, of Old Orchard, Mo. Air. Widman spent from July 
9-23, 1901, at Wequetonsing, Emmet County, Mich., during which time he 
made observations on the birds of that vicinity, the results of which were 
published in the "Auk" Vol. XIX. No. 3. 

Dr. P. E. Moody, Mr. Bert Stowell and A. W. Blain, Jr., spent a pleasant 
week among the birds of northern Oakland County. Starting on May 21st 
with horse, wagon and boat, they traveled many miles, working the lakes, 
woods and fields in quest of bird-notes and specimens. The trip may prove 
the nucleus of a future paper. 

Mr. J. J. Ricks completed his post-graduate course at the U. of M. June, 
1903. He is to accept a position with the legal department of the Illinois 
Central at Chicago. 

Prof. Chas. C. Adams is to give two courses in zoology at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan Summer School. 

Maj. A. H. Boies (Engineer Corps U. S. A.) of Hudson, Mich., one of 
the oldest ornithologists of the state, is situated temporarily at Amherstburg, 
Ontario. He reports little time for bird study at present, but expects to send 
in notes of interest in the near future. 

Mr. Chas. F. Freiburger, Jr., is sailing on the U. S. Lighthouse tender 
"Marigold" among the islands of Lake Superior. We presume he shall 
find much of interest in the bird line, especially with the Gulls and Tertis 
which nest so abundantly on some of the islands. 

We are sorry to learn of the recent sale of the Oological collection of 
Mr. Wm. A. Davison, of Detroit, to E. H. Short, of Rochester, N. Y. It is 
to be regretted that this fine collection could not have been procured by 
some museum in the state rather than to have had it pass into the hands 
of a dealer. 

Among other interesting articles in the "Wilson Bulletin" for March is one 
by Mr. B. H. Swales entitled "Notes on the Winter Birds of Wayne County, 
Mich." The Wilson Ornithological Chapter of the Agassiz Association, by 
which the "Wilson Bulletin" has been published, has changed its name to - the 
Wilson Ornithological Club. 

From a recent letter from a former editor of this journal we quote as 
follows: I am just sitting up again from an attack of pneumonia and have 
missed all the wonted pleasure I have, had with the birds. My physician 
tells me I must go west at once, and I expect to start soon for Casm ; opolis, 
Washington. I will take Coues and Ridgway and other friends among the 
books and study the birds there if I am able. 

Yours fraternally, 

Manchester, Mich. L. Whitney Watkins. 

Mr. Norman A. Wood, of the U. of M. Museum, will leave June 29 for 
Oscoda County in search of the Kirtland's Warbler. 

52 Bulletin of the 



fBMcbigau Ornithological Club 




131 Elmwood Avenue, - Detroit, Mich. 

J. Claire Wood, - - - Detroit, Mich. 

Adolphe B. Covert, - - - Ann Arbor, Mich, 

Detroit, Mich., June, 1903. 

Subscription: In Xorth America, fifty cents a year, strictly in advance. 
Single copies, fifteen cents. 

Foreign Subscription: Seventy-five cents a year to all countries in the 
Universal Postal Union. 

Free to Members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 


While yet young the Club is accomplishing good work — the meetings 
have been most interesting and profitable to those present, and much im- 
portant work is now well under way. 

It is a regretable fact that most ornithological journals cannot appear 
on time. This fault is examplified by the last and present issues of this 
journal. 'The habitual late appearance as has been noted before (''The 
Auk." XVIII.. pp. \2()) is in most cases due to the contributors who neglect 
getting their M.MS, in on time — thus, our apology, is due in the case of this 
issue. We shall have to insist upon receiving MMS. intended for publication 
not later than the 15th of the month preceeding publication. \n all cases con- 
tributors should write one side of the paper only and as plainly as p. >>>ible — 
observance of these rules will save the editor much unnecessary labor. Scien- 
tific names are not always of extreme importance but it is best to insert 
same in all contributions so that no chance of doubt will exist as to what 
species (or sub-species) the notes pertain. 

'Hie editor would request that members send in notes at all times. Some 
may not prove suitable for publication but all will be thankfully received. 

In this number we publish half-tones of four prominent bird-men of 

Michigan Ornithological Club 53 

this state — this feature will be continued in future issues. Many fine illus- 
trations of birds, nests and eggs shall also be utilized in future issues as 
well as a series of photographs of the museums of the state at which are 
centered the bird collections — the first of the latter series is given as a 
frontispiece to this number. We cannot say with any certainty what articles 
will appear in the September issue but promise many things of interest to 
bird-students. Among the articles which we shall publish in the near future 
will be a series of papers on the hawks and owls of this state by Edward 
Arnold. The student of geographical distribution will find much of interest 
in an article by Adolphe B. Covert on the Life Zones of Michigan and one 
by Chas. C. Adams on the distribution of the Kirtland Warbler. Short 
interesting notes will form a prominent feature of every issue. 

Two interesting and instructive papers were given under the auspices 
of the Club on May 20th at the Detroit Museum of Art. The first was on 
the "Interpretations of the Weather Maps," by Edgar Nelson Transeau, of 
the University of Michigan. In this paper Mr. Transeau showed how weather 
effected the migrations of birds and consequently how important it was to 
the student to study the weather maps as a means of keeping in touch with 
the weather. This was followed by a paper by Wilbur H. Grant, also of 
the U. of M., on the "Effect of Weather Upon Migration.*' Mr. Grant was 
apparently familiar with the works of Brewster, Cooke, Herr Gatke and 
others on migration, but he used the data gathered by members of the Club 
at Ann Arbor this Spring to follow out his theories. 

It is to be regretted that the night was so disagreeable for the papers 
would have proved most profitable to many who might otherwise have 
attended as well as the many members and visitors who did attend. 

The Treasurer desires to call the attention of members who are in 
arrears for dues. The cost of publishing the Bulletin is much greater than 
is most generally supposed and the Club needs all available funds. The con- 
stituton provides that all members three months in arrears for dues to be 
dropped from the roll. Mr. Swales address is now 191 Kirby Ave., East 
Detroit. Kindly attend to this matter at once. 

We learn from the "U. of M. News-Letter" that "the museum of the 
University of Michigan has recently procured a very valuable collection of 
bird skins, most of which have been collected in southwestern Michigan. 
This collection was made by Dr. Morris W. Gibbs, of Kalamazoo, Mich., 
formerly of the University. Dr. Gibbs has published many papers on Michi- 
gan birds, and for this reason his collection is of especial historic value. 
The skins are in excellent condition, and fully supplied with data regarding 
locality and date of capture. The collection numbers about 225 skins, and 
gives a good idea of the bird life of the southwestern part of the state. 

"The University museum stands in great need of similar collections from 
other sections, especially from the northern part of the state, where so little 
bird work has been done. The birds of the southeastern part of the state are 
also poorly represented. Tt is hoped that friends of the University will aid 
in making the collections in the museum representative of the entire state." 

54 Bulletin of the 


A Handbook of the Biros of the United States and Canada. By Thomas 
Nuttall. New Revised and Annotated Edition. By Montague Chamber- 
lain. With additions and one hundred and ten illustrations in color. 
Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1903. 12 mo. Pages xliv.+473+ix.-f 43L 
Col. pll 20 numerous text cuts. Price, $3.00. 

This book should find a place in the library of every student of birds in 
the lake region. The present work is a reprint of the second edition (1896) 
published in two volumes at $7.50 net. The text is exceedingly interesting, 
and of especial historical interest owing to the relation of the original (1832) 
edition to American Ornithology. The work treats of the birds east of the 
Mississippi, except in such cases where the bird is common to both sections 
of the country. The illustrations are for most parts good — the colored 
ones are at least interesting as they are taken to a great extent from Auduborn 
and Wilson. A biography of its author would have added much to the in- 
terest of this volume. A. W. B., Jr. 

Cassinia. A Bird Annual. Proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornith- 
ological Club of Philadelphia. No. IV., 1902. Roy, 8 vo. pp. 66. Feb., 
1903. Price, fifty cents. 

The fourth number of the "Proceedings" and the second number under 
the title "Cassinia" (after the well known ornithologist) of this prominent 
bird-club, is full of interesting and good sound articles. With no less an 
editor than Witmer Stone the contents of this production speaks for itself: 
•'Edward Harris" (with portrait) ; G. S. Morris, ''Henslow's Bunting in New 
Jersey"; S. N. Roads, "The Unusual Flight of White Herons in 1902"; W. 
B. Evans, "Notes on the Germantown Grackle Roost" ; A. C. Emlen, "The 
Heart of the New Jersey Pine Barrens"; H. L. Coggins, "Report on the 
Spring Migration, 1902"; Witmer Stone, "Elliot Coues on the Death of John 
Cassin." Besides the ornithological papers an abstract of club meetings for 
1902 is given, also "Bird Club Notes" and a list of the members and officers 
for 1903. A. W. B., Jr. 

A Hand Book of the Detroit Museum of Art (Illustrated). Detroit, 

Michigan, 1902. 

This is a beautifully illustrated volume of eighty-seven pages, giving a 
brief history of the Museum and its collections. It is "issued in the hope that 
the people of Detroit may become better acquainted with this institution and 
its increasing educational value to the public," and we feel sure that its 
mission has been fullfilled by all who have seen the present volume. 

The natural history collections, as well as many of the other collections, 
have had a warm friend in the person of Mr. Frederick Stearns, of Detroit, 
who has spent unlimited time and money in building up and presenting to the 
Museum such collections as he has gathered in his travels to many corners 
of the world. 

The Museum is of particular interest to bird students owing to its fine 
ornithological and Oological collections. Most of the meetings of the Michi- 
gan Ornithological Club have been held within its walls. 

The Museum is soon to have a large addition built on the rear which 
will give still more room to the bird collections. The Museum throughout 
reflects the labor spent by its able director — A. H. Griffith. A. W. B., Jr. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 55 

Wild Birds in City Parks. By Herbert E. and Alice Hall Walters. A. W. 

Mumford, Chicago, 1903. Paper, pp. 40. Price, 25 cents. 

Nothing in the way of bird lore that has found its way to my desk has 
pleased me more than this little book. In my boyhood days what would 1 
have given for a volume of this kind? I find more practical and useful infor- 
mation in it than in any other book of its kind and size that I have ever 
before seen. It deals with one hundred birds found in a Chicago park and 
will be found of much value to students, first as an aid to identification, be- 
cause of the general and particular hints ; second, in chapter on how to take 
notes a great many of our older observers could find useful hints. It is a 
field work of pocket size which means a great deal. I should like to see this 
book introduced into our public schools. A. B. C. 

The Story of the BIrd Lover. By William Earl Dodge Scott. New York: 
1903. The Outlook Company, xi.+372 pages; 1 plate. Price $1.50. 

Am. Ornithology, Vol. III., No. 3-6, March, June, 1903. 

Atlantic Slope Naturalist, Vol. I, No. 1, 2, March-April, May-June, 1903. 

Auk., Vol. XX., No. 2, April. 1903. 

Bird-Lore, Vol. V., No. 2, 3, March-April, May-June, 1903. 

Condor, Vol. V., No. 2, 3, March-April, May-June, 1903. 

Dutcher, Win., The Meadowlark. Nat. Comni. of Audubon Soc. Educational 
Leaflet No. 3, New York City, 1903. 

Journal Maine Orn. Soc. Vol. V., No. 2, April, 1903. 

Recreation, Vol, XVIII., No. 3, 4, 5. April-June, 1903. 

Science (N. S)Vol.. XVII., No. 429-441, 1903. 

Wilson Bulletin (No. 42) Vol. X., No. 1, March, 1903. 

Rev. W. Leon Dawson, of Columbus, Ohio, has in the course of prepara- 
tion a work which will be of especial interest to all students in the Great 
Lake region. The work of 500 pages will be beautifully illustrated by 80 
colored plates and 200 half tones of birds, and will be exclusively a subscrip- 
tion book. We look foreward with pleasant anticipations for "Dawson's 
Birds of Ohio." 

Messrs. Dana Estes & Co. announce that the fifth revised edition of Dr. 
Elliot Coues' "Key to North American Birds" will be ready some time this 
fall. The manuscript was completed shortly before the author's death. The 
new edition will be beautifully illustrated and will be published in two 
volumes at $10. 

56 Bulletin of the 


Early in December, 1902, I received, for mounting, a fine adult male King 
Rail {luillus elegans) from John W. Benline, of Port Huron, Mich. The 
bird was in perfect condition, but upon close examination the tarsus of one 
leg proved to have been broken, but it had successfully healed up. Becoming 
interested in this specimen I wrote regarding the capture to Mr. Benline, 
who replied that he caught the Rail November 27th, six miles west of Port 
Huron in low swampy ground, but on December 6th the bird escaped from 
him and he had to shoot to get it again. 

Mr. Benline further says that on December 13th he saw more King Rail 
tracks on snow covered ice one-half mile north of where this one was caught. 

Detroit, Midi. Louis J. Eppinger. 


It was with much pleasure I located on May 14th, 1898, in the wood known 
as the Chestnut Ridge, Wayne County, Mich., a nest, containing five eggs, of 
the Small-billed Water-thrush (Sciunts noveboracemsxs) . The nest was close 
to and partly under the large trunk of a fallen tree, on slightly elevated 
ground, the situation apparently being well selected to avoid any dampness 
or moisture to the nest from the water which covered the ground in its lowest 
places to within a short distance of the bird's nesting site. The condition of 
the eggs considerably surprised me — the date being early — as they were all 
heavily incubated and it was only with much difficulty and care they were 
saved. Their ground is creamy white, blotched and spotted at larger ends 
with dark brown graduating into light lilac tints. The nest is made entirely 
of fine and coarse grasses, the former as the lining; oak leaves serving as a 
foundation. The bird has the usual typical markings, throat and under parts 
white with pronounced sulphur tint, streaked with dark greenish brown, same 
shade being the general coloration of the back and wings. It measures, 
over all, six inches. Length of bill from tip to base one-half inch. Report 
had reached me that the Water-thrush had been seen in the Chestnut Ridge 
but was not certain that the identity of the bird by my informant was assured. 
I therefore decided to cover the question of identification thoroughly by 
securing the bird, which proved to be the female. The bird left its nest ex- 
hibiting the usual symptoms of alarm, with drooping and fluttering wings, 
soon returned, and while leaving the nest a second time was taken. I have, 
since the date of finding this nest, searched diligently for the bird, not only 
in the Chestnut Ridge, but other suitable places as well, and have failed utterly 
to again see one. My conclusion is that the bird is a somewhat rare one in 
this vicinity, and therefore but seldom met with. 

Detroit, Mich. Edwin G. Mummery. 


This spring (1903) a pair of Robins took up their abode on a board 
under the eaves of our barn at Draton Planes. As circumstances proved most 
favorable the brood hatched and were soon able to fly. I was greatly sur- 

Michigan Ornithological Club 57 

prised to find on passing the nest June 12th, to see a female Blue-bird (Silias 
silias) sitting on the nest. Upon examination I found that the nest con- 
tained four eggs of the latter species. 

Pontiac, Mich. Bert Stowell. 



On May 14th, 1903, Mr. Walter C. Wood and myself were at Grosse 
Pointe on a collecting trip, and among the many things noted was a Yellow- 
breasted Chat {Icteria virens), the latter being observed by Mr. Wood. 

On May 30th Mr. J. Claire Wood, Mr. W. C. Wood and myself were in 
the same territory, and in passing from the timber into a bushland I flushed a 
chat from a small clump of elm sprouts, and upon investigation found the 
carefully concealed nest situated about one and one-fourth feet above the 
ground and almost entirely surrounded by the sprouts. The nest was com- 
posed of weed stalks, dead leaves and lined with fine root fibres. The eggs, 
four in number, were partially incubated. The ground color was white and 
was spotted with brown — being most heavily marked at the larger end. This 
I understand is the second recorded set taken in Wayne County. 

Detroit, Mich. Chas. E. Wisner. 


Snowy Owls have not been seen in this part of the state during the past 
winter. A few Crows remained all winter. Pine Siskins and Snow Buntings 
have been entirely absent. A small flock of Red-polls were seen. Red- 
headed Woodpeckers and Flickers were not observed, but a limited number 
of Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers were with us all winter. 

Tree Sparrows, Crossbills and Purple Finches were entirely absent while 
the Black-capped Titmouse and White-breasted Nuthatch were quite abun- 
dant. Two Long-eared, one Short eared, and a few Screech Owls were ob- 
served. A Barrel Owl, the last of his race left in this neighborhood that I 
know of, whose solemn hoot at the dead hour of night seems to be calling 
for his lost mate and companions who will never return. 

. The above notes compared with my notes on winter birds for a number 
of years show that some of our winter birds, such as the Snow-bunting, Tree 
Sparrow, Red-poll and Purple-finch, are growing less abundant. Whether this 
is caused by decreasing numbers in their northern home or because they have 
forsaken the shores of Michigan, I am unable to say, but they are certainly 
growing less abundant in our state. 

Plymouth, Mich. James B. Purdy. 


In my experience all Grackles select cavities in which to rear their young 
when convenient hollows are obtainable. Thirty years ago there were many 
dead stubs with suitable cavities in the suburbs of my native city — Kalamazoo, 
Mich. These hollows, mostly in old tamaracks were selected by the bronzed 
Grackles for their nesting, and the birds only changed their quarters when 
the stubs were uprooted and the land cleared, then the gregarious black- 
birds moved into town and mainly took up their residence among the ever- 

58 Bulletin of the 

greens. The eggs were often deposited in the regulation nest built in a 
hollow, but it was not unusual to find eggs laid on the bare wood pf the 
hollow, and I have found many deposited in this manner. It is not unusual 
for a species to change its habit in nesting and I have found marked varia- 
tion from the normal in over thirty species, and a regular acceptance of the 
change in several species. For instance — the barn swallow, eave swallow, 
phoebe and chimney swift have all adopted the means at hand so-to-speak 
as furnished by man, and have radically changed their nesting sites. The 
changes resulting from the effects of civilization are marked in many birds 
and a book might be written on the subject. 

Kalamazoo, Mich. Morris Gibbs, M. D. 


Speaking of the eggs of the Mourning Dove (Zcnaidura macroura) Davie 
(Nest and Eggs of N. A. Birds p. 188) says: "Two white eggs are laid, there 
are exceptional cases, however, where more are deposited. Mr. Morris has 
a set of three. Mr. L. Jones, of Grenell, Iowa, writes that he has a set of 
four. Mr. P. W. Smith, of Greenville, 111., records several sets of three and 
four, two sets taken from old robin nests." From this it would seem that 
four is an unusual number. It was very good fortune to find a set of this 
number in Oakland County on May 13, 1899. The nest was seven feet from 
the ground on the horizontal branch of an apple tree. I believe this set 
was the compliment of a single bird, as all in the set were under the same 
stage of incubation — all being fresh. 

Detroit, Mich. Fred C. Hubel. 


It happened May 3rd, 1002, in Springfield Township, Oakland County, 
and in a meadow bordering a large marsh of rushes. Our editor was on 
his way to a Flicker's nest, some fifteen feet up a willow stub, and our secre- 
tary was seated upon the railroad track viewing proceedings with an ex- 
pression akin to sarcasm. I was beside the latter, but as indications suggested 
a probability of the Flicker ascension being accomplished in about .five hours, 
I allowed my gaze to wander. An incongruity to harmony in scenic affect 
arrested my attention. It was a Bittern standing motionless in the long 
meadow grass. Had he been in the marsh I would have let him stand, but 
there was something unusual in his position, and 1 proceeded to investigate. 
Not a muscle did he move until I was within some thirty feet, when he sud- 
denly lowered his head in my direction with neck extended and mandibles 
apart and uttered a distinct hissing noise. He held his ground until only a 
few paces separated us, then took wing and retired into the marsh. I made 
directly for the vicinity he vacated, and what was half anticipated proved a 
reality. So skillfully concealed was madam that her head and neck were 
invisible, and only a small patch of her back was without covering. A glance 
showed conclusively the artistic work of her mate, for she could not have 
executed the network of grass blades that lay close about her form. I tapped 
her on the back and she instantly stood up to be grasped by legs and neck. 
Seated upon the ground and partly concealed behind the flapping wings of a 
large bird I doubtless presented a spectacle of interest, anyhow, great com- 

Michigan Ornithological Club 59 

motion was now evident in ornithological circles. Over the fence came our 
secretary, followed by several other local celebrities, while our editor favored 
me with one look of wonder and his climbers slipped. He was soon afoot, 
however, and coming at a limping trot spitting out chunks of rotten wood, 
teeth and language. In the absence of the president our secretary called the 
meeting to order, and it was resolved that the capture of a Bittern upon her 
nest was somewhat unusual, but the most remarkable feature was yet to come. 
After due examination of the slight hollow lined with bits of dead rushes that 
served as a nest, I replaced madam and held her a few moments, then hastily 
retreated several feet, but she did not move. Then the party retired to the 
track and discussed this new phase, while our editor went back to the stub. 
All this time a sharp lookout was kept upon the spot that concealed madam, 
but still she sat. Bye and bye our editor reached the Flicker's nest and 
applied an optic which was greeted by a joyous yell from within. Con- 
vinced that so much juvenile clamor did not come from fresh eggs he slid 
down in disgust and we started for other territory, but with an eye on the 
meadow to the very last, and during that time madam Botaurus Lentiginosus 
had not abandoned her domicile. 

Detroit, Mich. J. Claire Wood. 


The ninth annual meeting of the Michigan Academy of Science was held 
at Ann Arbor on March 26, 27, 28. The following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year : President, Dr. Frederick C. Newcombe, University of 
Michigan; Secretary, Dr. James B. Pollock, University of Michigan; Treas- 
urer, H. L. Clark, Olivet College; Librarian, Dr. G. P. Burns, University of 
Michigan. Vice-Presidents for the different sections; Botany, Professor B. 
O. Longyear, Michigan Agricultural College ; Agriculture, Professor W. J. 
Beal, Michigan Agricultural College ; Geology and Geography, Professor Israel 
C. Russell, University of Michigan ; Zoology, Professor R. H. Petit, Michigan 
Agricultural College; Science Teaching, Professor W. H. Sherzer, Michigan 
State Normal College. 


This has been a poor year for collecting, as the migrants have passed 
north with short stops here and there. I was in the field early, late and often, 
and I have seen very few of the migrating birds (that is few in number). 
I can account for it in two ways : First, that they passed' here mostly at 
night. Second, that they chose some other route this spring. The warblers 
especially were scarce, as shown by the following list of species observed at 
Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, during the spring of 1903 : 

Black and White Warbler, April 16 — common. 

Myrtle Warbler, April 28 — 6 seen. 

Yellow Warbler, April 28 — common. 

Black-thro. Green Warbler, May 1 — 2 seen. 

Palm Warbler, May 2 — 1 seen. 

Black-thro. Blue Warbler, May 7—5 seen. 

Redstart, May 5 — common. 

Maryland Yellow-throat, May 7 — common 

60 Bulletin of tin: 

Parula. Warbler, May 7 — 3 seen. 

Blue Goldenwing, Warbler, May 8—44 scon. 

Prairie Warbler, May 9 — 2 seen. 

Tennessee Warbler, May 9 — 1 seen. 

Nashville Warbler, May 9 — 2 seen. 

Chestnut-sided Warbler, May 10 — 6 seen. 

Bay-breasted Warbler, May 10 — 2 seen. 

Blackburnian Warbler, May 12 — 4 seen. 

Cerulean Warbler, May 12 — 3 seen. 

Magnolia Warbler, May 13 — 5 seen. 

Canadian Warbler, May 14 — 3 seen. 

Black Poll Warbler, May 17 — 5 seen. 

Wilson's Black Cap Warbler, May 23 — 2 seen. 

I should be pleased to hear from the members of the club in regard to 
the number of species (of warblers) observed this season with data in regard 
to the relative abundance. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. Xorman A. Wood. 


My first record of Protonotaria citrea in Michigan is that of a male at 
Cadillac, Wexford County. May 7th, 1882. T did not again meet this bird 
until May 8th, 1896, when Mr. Norman A. Wood and T made a trip "Down 
in Egypt," in the township of Lyons, Oakland County. Tn this vast swamp 
we secured a pair, male and female, with their nest and eggs. 

Again on May 9th, 1903, in company with Mr. Alexander W. Blain, Jr., 
we observed a male in full song, but did not secure him. at Grosse Pointe, 
Wayne County. This bird is a summer resident of the Carolinean Zone of 
the state. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. Adolphe P>. Covert. 


Our present knowledge of the distribution of the Chat (Ictcria irirens) 
in this state is very limited, much more so than it should be. The late Dr. 
H. A. Atkins, of Locke, Ingham County, reported it there at various times, 
and his records must be considered good. Jerome Trombly. of Petersburg, 
Monroe County, says common and nested here prior to 1881. Maj. A. H. 
Boies records one specimen from Lenawee County (no date). Dr. Robt. H. 
Wolcott and the writer found them very common in May, 1893, at various 
places, and secured a fine series of specimens; these were taken about four 
miles south of Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County. Again in the same locality, 
in company with Prof. Dean C. Worcester, on May 4th, 1895, T secured a 
pair (male and female), which were nesting. Mr. Win. A. Davison found 
them breeding in Wayne County near Detroit. Our latest record is that of 
Mr. Chas. Wisner at Grosse Pointe, Wayne County. 

These birds must be considered as belonging to the Carolinian Life Zone 
of Michigan. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. Adolphe B. Covert. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 61 


On the 15th of June, 1903, while on a fishing trip on the Au Sable river, 
in Oscoda County, Mr. Thomas Gale and I secured a male specimen of 
Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandi Baird). My attention had been 
attracted earlier in the day by a strange bird-song, which I found to proceed 
from a warbler with which I was unfamiliar. At this time I saw two of the 
birds, apparently both males, but was unable to take either of them. During 
the morning we drove with Mr. J. A. Parmalee to the north branch of the 
Au Sable in Crawford County, a distance of seven miles. We heard the 
song at several places along the road, and at last saw one of the birds singing 
on a pine stump in a slashing close to the border of Crawford County. Mr. 
Gale shot the bird, which proved to be a male. This is the only summer 
specimen recorded from Michigan. The skin is now in the collection of the 
University of Michigan Museum. Earl H. Frothingham. 

Museum, University of Michigan, Ami Arbor, Mich. 


The annual meeting was held March 27 at Ann Arbor in the University 
of Michigan Museum. About thirty members were present, together with a 
number of visitors. Business meeting called by Pres. Covert at 11 a. m. Mr. 
Blain spoke on the aim and purpose of the Bulletin. A general discussion 
followed as to the cost and plans for our journal. 

P. M. Session called at 1.30. The first paper was by Adolphe B. Covert 
on "The Life Zones of Michigan.'' This was illustrated by a bas-relief map 
of the state showing the various zones in reference to their bird-faunas. Dis- 
cussion followed by Prof. Walter B. Barrow>. 

Chas. C. Adams read a paper entitled "Notes on the Origin and Fauna 
of Lower Michigan." This was illustrated by many maps. A general discus- 
sion followed on various bird subjects, which took up most of the afternoon. 
In the meantime a short recess was taken to allow the committee on Geological 
Distribution to meet. The committee report was given by Mr. Adams (see 
page 29, March issue). 

April - J 3rd. — The meeting was held at the Detroit Museum of Art. Owing 
to the weather the meeting adjourned as a quorum was not present. 

May 1. — Meeting held at the Detroit Museum of Art. Fourteen members 
present. President Covert in the chair. J. Claire Wood read a paper en- 
titled the "Blue-jay in Autum," which illustrated many of the characters of 
this interesting bird. A. W. Blain, Jr., read a paper on "Five Days of Ob- 
servation on the Birds of Elmwood" (a Detroit Cemetery) [April 27, 28, 29, 
30, May 1] in which he gave the arrival dates of many species as well as many 
other notes of interest. Among others he recorded the capture of a male and 
female Palm Warbler — one of the rarest of local warblers. This was fol- 
lowed by notes by J. Claire Wood on birds noted during the same time in the 
western part of Wayne County. "Bird Observation" by Dr. Morris Gibbs 
was read by Mr. Blain in the absence of its author. Discussion followed by 
Messrs. Covert, Wood, Blain and Swales. 

Bradshaw H. Swales. 


62 Bulletin of the 

June 5th. — The June meeting was held at the Museum of Art. President 
Covert in chair. About fifteen members present. In the absence of the 
Secretary the undersigned was appointed Secretary-protem. The following 
fraternal communication was read : • 

"The Mcllwraith Ornithological Club of London, Ontario, sends greet- 
ing to the Michigan Ornithological Club with the hope that the re-organized 
club may be successful in every sense of the word, particularly in the way of 
stimulating its members to better work more carefully recorded than ever 
before. (Signed) W. E. Saunders, 

Secretary Mel. O. C." 

Papers entitled "Local Heroines" by J. Claire Wood and "Bubo zir- 
ginianus in Michigan," by E. Arnold, were read by title. 

A. W. Blain, Jr., gave notes on the Loon of Oakland County, and Chas. 
Wisner reported the finding of a set of Yellow-breasted Chat at Grosse Pointe. 

The following persons were elected to active membership : 

Henry L. Avery, Pearl Beach. Mich. 

Claude Barlow, Greenville. 

O. A. Belknap, Ann Arbor. 

Rev. J. A. Chapin, Detroit. 

Guy E. Davis, Ypsilanti. 

Frances J. Dunbar, Ann Arbor. 

J. Wistar Harris. Chicago. 

Rev. W. Leon Dawson, Columbus, Ohio 

Benjamin T. Gault, Glen Ellyn, 111. 

E. Gillman, Detroit. 

Mrs. George Gundrum, Ionia. 

Thomas L. Hankinson, Charleston. 111. 

T. F. Mcllwraith, Hamilton, Ontario. 

Isabelle H. Parnall, Calumet. 

Max M. Peet, Ann Arbor. 

Mrs. S. C. Rowlson, Grand Rapids. 

E. O. Scott. Ypsilanti. 

Mrs. L. McG. Stephenson, Helena, Arkansas. 

A. D. 'linker, Ann Arbor. 

Bess. M. Voorman, Dnuagiac. 

Otto Widman, Old Orchard, Mo. 

Wm. B. Wreford, Detroit. 

A general discussion followed in which Messrs. Griffith, Cole, W. C. 
Wood, Eppingcr and the Chair took part. 

The next meeting of the M. O. C. will be held at the Detroit Museum of 
Art on August 7th. 

A. W. Blain, Jr., 
Secretary pro tern. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 63 

As we go to press we hear from Mr. Norman A. Wood, as follows: 
Oscoda County, July 3rd. Started out at 6 145 this morning to look up D. 
Kirtlandi and had five fine males in my basket before 9 o'clock. No females 
found so I suppose they are setting very close — no nests found yet. Have 
found nest with two young of the Gt. Northern Shrike ; young are full fledged, 
nest not very bulky, built in pine tree. 

We shall expect a more extended sketch of this trip by Michigan's well 
known "warbler man" for our next issue. 

Just after this issue had gone to press Mr. Wood returned home 
from his trip north in quest of the Kirtland's Warbler with very grati- 
fying success, having obtained a fine series of skins, male, female, nest- 
lings, full-fledged young, nest and eggs. 

Mr. Wood also obtained some two dozen photographs of the birds 
(in life) and their nests. The material of this trip prepared by Mr. 
Wood and illustrated by the photographs, will be given to our readers 
in the third issue. The editor also hopes to be able to give a colored 
plate of the egg. There shall also be articles on the rare and interesting 
bird by Chas. C. Adams, A. B. Covert and Earl H. Frothingham. 

A. W. B., Jr. 


Each member of the Club, not in arrears for dues, is entitled to two 
exchange notices, of thirty words each, during the year ; other 
subscribers one such notice. 

WANTED.— Sets of eggs containing- abnormal specimens, such as 
runts, albinos, monstrosities, abnormally colored or shaped eggs. Will 
give cash or good exchange. J. Warren Jacobs, Waynesburg-, Pa. 


Vol. IV., No. 3. 

September, 1903. 






Published Quarterly 

In the Interests of Ornithology 

in the Great Lake Region. 




Entered April aoth, 1903, at Detroit, Micb., as second-class mail matter under the Act of Congress 

July 16th, 1894. 



Frontispiece. In the Haunts of the Red-shouldered 

Hawk. By F. C. Hubel 66 

Song: of a Nest Robber {poem). By J. Claire 

Wood 67 

Eggs of the Red-tailed Hawk {half-tone). By J. 

Warren Jacobs 68 

The Passenger Pigeon in the Early Days of Michi- 
gan. By James B. Purdy 69 

Merganser americanus Nesting at Saginaw Bay, 

Michigan, 1902-1903. By E. Arnold 71 

With the Loons of Oakland County, Michigan. By 

Frederick C. Hubel 72 

Breeding of the Piping Plover on Big Charity 

Island, Michigan, 1903. By E. Arnold 74 

Breeding of the Grasshopper Sparrow in St. Clair 

County. By Frederick C. Hubel 75 

Michigan Ornithologists {2nd series). Halftones 
of Prof. H. L. Clark, N. A. Eddy, L. J. 
Eppinger, E. Arnold 76 

Editorial 77 

Recent Literature 79 

Notes from Field and Museum {8 short articles) . . 

Halftone by J. Warren Jacobs 81 

Minutes of Club Meetings 84 


is published on the fifteenth of March, June, September 
and December, by the Michigan Ornithological Club, at 
Detroit, Mich. 

Subscription : Fifty cents a year, including postage, 
strictly in advance. Single numbers, fifteen cents. Free 
to members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

All subscriptions, articles and communications in- 
tended for publication and all publications and books for 
notice, should be addressed to the Editor, Alexander W. 
Blain, Jr., 131 Elmwood Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Articles of general interest relating to the bird life of 
the Great Lake Region are solicited. They should be in 
the hands of the editor not later than the 20th of the 
month preceding publication. 





j Michigan Ornithological Club 

Poblished Quarterly in the Interests of Ornithology 

in the Great Lake Region. 

Vol. IV. SEPTEMBER, 1903. No. 3. 



Say ! You city fellows, 

I do> not want to blow 
But I'll tell you something 

And something you should know. 
Leave the dusty city 

And get out into the woods 
Away from the street organ 

And man with the green goods. 
When you lay around on Sunday 

A' feeling mighty blue, 
Without the slightest notion 

Of what on earth to do, 
Get inside your working clothes 

And come along with me, 
And you will find a pleasure 

You never dreamed could be. 
For everything in nature 

Is now at the very best 
And the hawks built in the hickory 

And the eggs are in the nest. 

Some people like the city 

Because they're built that way, 
But I prefer the country 

On most any kind of day. 
I'd sooner hear the wood thrush 

Than the greatest opera star. 
And would not swap the buckboard 

For a Pullman palace car. 
If I had a million dollars, 

And I never expect to have 
Enough to buy a bottle 

Of old St. Jacob's salve, 
To gain a social footing 

I would not spend a dime; 


Bulletin of the 

To me there'd be no pleasure 

As a fashion plate to shine. 
But I'd take about a dollar 

And skip to the place loved best 
Where the hawks built in the hickory 

And the eggs are in the nest. 

When the season of grim winter 

Is replaced by balmy spring 
And you hear the frogs a' croaking 

And the birds begin to sing, 
A sort of joyous feeling 

Goes a' creeping over you 
And out comes the collecting box 

And strap and climbers too. 
Then good bye to the city 

For about a month or so 
And welcome to the forest 

Where sweet pure breezes blow. 
And when with expiring vacation 

You bid nature's realm farewell 
The most pleasant of the pictures 

That in the memory dwell 
Is the place of all the places 

The most of all you bless 
Where the hawk built in the hickory 

And the eggs are where — well guess. 

Eggs of the Red-tailed Hawk 
Selected from a series in the collection of J. Warren Jacobs. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 69 



While rummaging in the attic lately I came across an old relic — a relic 
that brought back to me the fondest recollections of my early boyhood. It 
was an old stool that my father used for catching pigeons. 

In those early days I kept no dates, but as near as I can remember it 
was somewhere in the early fifties when the wild pigeons (Ectopistes miga- 
torius) made their regular spring and fall migrations through this part of 
Michigan in such vast numbers that they would nearly darken the sun. 

As these great flocks passed one behind the other, far above the tree 
tops, they reminded me of fast fleeting clouds before a gale. Occasionally 
one of these high flying flocks would pitch down upon a field to feed and 
the great trains behind them would follow suit until the large field would 
be blue with pigeons. When they arose from the ground the roar of their 
wings would sound like distant thunder and they would light upon the old 
girdlings, which stood in the fields, in such great numbers that limbs of 
considerable size would be broken off under their weight. 

It was during these migrations that my father would take this old stool, 
his pigeon net and a basket containing not less than three live pigeons and 
go out into the middle of a cleared field — stake out his net, build a bough 
house and prepare for business. The net was attached to the center of the 
net rope, the latter was probably three hundred feet long, each end of which 
was tied to a good firm stake which was driven in the ground. Around one 
of these stakes was built the bough-house, which was comprised of thick 
bushes about eight feet high, the ends of which were driven in the ground 
in a circle about eight feet in diameter. 

The old stool was then driven in the ground just far enough from the 
net bed so that the net when sprung would just miss the stool pigeon. A 
small line was then attached to the stool, which run back to the net pole in 
the bough-house. The three pigeons were then blinded and boots placed 
upon their legs. The stool pigeon was then tied upon the stool and the other 
two pigeons called flyers were tied to the ends of long fish lines two hundred 
feet long, the other ends of which were tied to a bush at the entrance of the 
bough-house — these lines were carfully paid out so as not to get tangled 
when the flyers were thrown into the air. The flyers were then placed on 
the ground at the entrance of the bough-house and a stone placed on the 
line near the pigeon to keep him in place until wanted. I have said 'the 
pigeons were blinded' — some one may ask, how was this done? This was 
performed with a needle and thread. The point of the needle was placed 
between the eyeball and the lower eyelid. The needle was then passed out- 
ward through the lower eyelid. The thread was now brought up over the 
top of the head and through the lower eyelid of the other eye. Now, the 
two ends of the thread are brought up over the top of the head and tight- 
ened until the eyes are closed, after which they were gently twisted together. 
Some may say this was cruel, to which I may answer that blood scarcely 
ever made its appearance from the punctures through their thin eyelids and 
soreness scarcely ever occurred. 

We now proceed to set the net and bait the net bed with wheat, and 
walking back to the entrance of the bough-house we are ready for business. 
We see a flock approaching and when within twenty-five or thirty rods we 
roll off the stones, throw the flyers and rush into the bough-house and 
play the stool pigeon, which is done by pulling on the stool line which raises 
the stool two or three feet high and by letting it down suddenly the stool 

70 Bulletin of the 

pigeon will flutter its wings. The flock has seen the flyers, which has drawn 
their attention and they now have their eyes on the stool pigeon and are 
sailing around and preparing to alight and suddenly they come pouring down 
on the net bed. 

Were you ever excited in your life? Did you ever have the "buck 
fever?"' With unsteady nerves you reach for the net rope. One moment 
more of awful suspense, a sudden jerk and the net dancing four thousand 
kinds of quicksteps, is sprung. You rush to the edge of the net and hold 
it down. One by one my father pinched their heads, which was the usual 
way of killing pigeons in a net. 

The pigeons are now carried to the bough-house and the net would 
again be set, the flyers would be brought in and we would be ready for 
another haul. Hundreds of pigeons we have taken in this manner in a single 
day. But I think I hear some one ask, what did you do with so many 
pigeons? I may answer by saying that there was not much market for them 
during those heavy flights, so we skinned out their breasts and placed them 
in a weak brine for a few days, after which they were strung on strings — 
perhaps one hundred on each line. They were then hung up to dry and we 
used them in the same manner as dried beef. After being thus cured they 
would last indefinitely. 

But here comes another inquiry — how did these pigeons see to eat? 
Did we unblind them? No, we held the mouths open between the thumb and 
finger and poured wheat down their capacious throats, which they eagerly 
swallowed when hungry. Wheat seemed to be the favorite food of the wild 
pigeon, but in its absence they would eat most any kind of grain and would 
feast abundantly on beech nuts and acorns, and when pressed by hunger 
would eat most any kind of weed seeds. 

The Passenger Pigeon, like the whole family (Colnmbidac) of pigeons 
and doves, has the power of disgorging inferior food when a better quality 
of food is found, ample proof of which is found by watching an old pigeon 
or dove feed her young. The food is swallowed by the old bird and then 
disgorged into the mouths of their young. The obnoxious weed commonly 
called Red-rod, known better by the old settlers of Michigan by the name 
of pigeon weed, was supposed to have been carried hundreds of miles by 
the passenger pigeons and then disgorged upon the wheat fields, where it 
took root and grew, thus giving the name pigeon weed. Their object, of 
course, was to fill their crops with a better quality of food. 

As to their breeding grounds* I cannot speak from personal observations, 
although many of them were found in those days in Michigan, but none of 
them, as far as I am able to learn, were found in this (Wayne) county. I 
was only a boy then, yon know, but since that time I have lived to see the 
pigeon swept from the shores of this state and in fact the whole of the 
American continent. 

And those sights which I have seen of the grand ariel flights of the 

*See "An article by William Brewster on 'The Present Status of the Wild Pigeon 
as a Bird of the United States, with Some Notes on Its Habits,' (Auk, vi, 1889 pp. 285- 
291), gives much information concerning tlie recent history of the bird in Michigan, one 
of its last strongholds. According to an informant of Mr. Brewster's, the last nesting 
in Michigan of any importance was in 1881. 'It was of only moderate size — perhaps eight 
miles long.' The largest known Michigan nesting occured in 1877 or 1878. It was 
twenty-eight miles long and averaged three or four miles in length." Chapman: 
Handbook of Birds of East. N. A. 6 Ed. (1902), p. 188. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 71 

Passenger Pigeon will probably never again be witnessed — they have gone, 
never to return. No more will they visit the shores of Michigan, for like 
Hamlet's ghost, they have departed forever, and the only thing I have left 
which reminds me of those days of yore is that old pigeon stool which lies 
in the attic. 

Plymouth, Mich., August 5, l 9°3- 

GAN, 1902 AND 1903. 


The latter part of March, 1902, I was on Heisterman's Island looking for 
nests of the Bald Eagle (Haliocctus Icucoccphalus) . I found an old nest and 
thought perhaps the birds were on North Island, about a mile distant, 30 
went to that island and found a large nest in a pine tree. The Eagles had 
left this nest and a pair of Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginanus) were in 
possession and had' young at this date. 

While standing close to a hollow tree a female American Merganser 
(Merganser americanus) rlew around my head squaking, and I knew I was 
close to her nesting site. On the 13th of May, the same year, I revisited the 
island looking for her eggs. Went at once to the hollow tree where I 
thought the eggs were, climbed it and as I got close to the hole the 1 female 
left, and I was more than pleased to look down upon the eight very beautiful 
eggs in a nest of down. Incubation had just begun. I put the eggs into a box, 
packed them carefully in cotton, descended the tree and spent one hour at 
the foot of the tree blowing the eggs. During this time the female flew 
over head a number of times squaking. I could have killed her easily, but did 
not as I had collected several and knew my bird well. 

The eggs are very handsome, and are nearly as large as those of the 
White winged Scoter (Oidcmia dclandi), are highly polished creamy buff color 
and different from any other Duck eggs in color, shape and size. The eight 
eggs measure as follows: 2.70 x 1.90, 2.70 x 1.90, 2.69 x 1.89, 2.75 x 1.88, 
2.64 x 1.93, 2.79 x 1.88, 2.79 x 1.59 and 2.78 x 1.88. The down of the nest 
is a beautiful light gray color. 

On May 12th, of this year, I made a careful search of this island, but 
found no Mergansers nests. A Mallard (Anas boschas) was sitting on her 
nest and ten eggs in the grass and bushes near shore. I did not disturb her. 
I went over to Heisterman's Island, and after a hard day's tramp and climb- 
ing about twenty trees, I at last located another Merganser nest in a hole in 
a tree about ten feet above the ground. The female was sitting on the eggs 
and looked very nice surrounded by a large nest of down. She made a 
hissing noise and refused to leave her eggs. I could not reach her or the 
eggs and as the tree was alive I had to get my little axe to work. So I 
strapped myself to the tree just above the sitting bird. I soon had a small 
hole into the interior and saw the female through it. I tried to shoo her off 
her eggs, but she refused to move. I kept on chopping as I had to make the 
hole large enough to get the eggs out. 

The chips'kept flying inside and outside the tree, many of them struck 
the bird, but still she refused to fly. Finally I had the hole large enough and 
at last pushed Mrs. M. Americanus off her eggs. She scrambled up and out 
of the entrance hole. I found eleven eggs and a beautiful nest of down 
Incubation had begun. The eggs closely resembled my first set, and are 
now in a private collection on the Pacific Coast. 

72 Bulletin of the 

I found another nest and nine fresh eggs on May 19th at the other end 
of Heisterman's Island. Hole was about fifteen feet up. i climbed to entrance 
and could plainly see the female sitting on her eggs, reached down, caught 
her by the neck and pulled her off her nest. Put her under my left arm and 
started down the tree. When about half way down I slipped and fell the rest 
of the way — still hanging to the bird. I examined her at leisure. Had one 
hand on her bill and held her feet with the other. I then let her go, 
expecting of course that she would fly away, but she simply waddled off, 
and when she was at a distance of about seven yards tried to coax me by 
feigning lameness. 1 again climbed the tree and brought the eggs 
down safely to the ground. The eggs closely resemble my other sets, and 
are now in my cabinet. 

Quite a few of these birds nest around Saginaw Bay. Nests are hard 
to find as the females will not flush. I have pounded hollow trees, contain- 
ing nests, with an ax and rail, but the birds prove loyal to their homes. I 
have climbed at least twenty trees for every nest I have found, so that the 
finding of a nest requires laborous work and lots of climbing. 

I saw a female early in June with six little ones, they were in shallow 
water close to an island. Could have caught the little ones, but did not 
want to kill the innocent. Saginaw Bay is shallow and the American Mer- 
ganser frequents it and is not found on the islands of Lake Huron where 
the water is deep. 

This bird has not been recorded as nesting in Michigan previous to my 
first finding the eggs in 1902. 

Battle Creek, Mich., August 20, 1903. 



Amid hundreds of small lakes surrounded by hills, beautified by their 
green trees and shrubs, the Loon (Urinator imbcr) of Oakland County, 
Michigan, finds a home most congenial to his tastes. 

Arriving from their winter home soon after the ice has melted before 
the warm days of early spring, their weird cry is a most familiar and happy 
greeting to the bird-student. Settling down in this region they remain ever 
contented until the ice parts them from their food. 

As a diver the Loon is unsurpassed except by the auk and darter. While 
trying to shoot this bird I have known it to dive and come up several hundred 
yards from the spot of disappearance. These long distant swims often prove 
fatal to the bird as it is not uncommon for a fisherman to discover one of 
them drowned in his nets. Rising from the water they are slow and awk- 
ward, which, of course, is due to their heavy weight. I have watched them 
rise from lakes a half mile long and circle completely around before being 
able to clear the hills and tree tops. Once at a considerable height their 
flight is rapid and long sustained. The cry of the Loon, which is generally 
heard about sunrise and sunset, is probably best described by Nuttall in the 
words: "I have'often heard on a fine calm morning the sad and wolfish call 
of the solitary Loon, which like a dismal echo seems slowly to invade the 
ear, and rising as it proceeds, dies away in the air." 

The numerous marshes and bog land about these lakes afford splendid 
breeding grounds for this bird as well as for the many other water fowl of 
this locality. Deserted musk-rat houses, bare bogs and masses of decayed 
vegetation situated along the edge of the marsh form the rude but suitable 
platform upon which the eggs are deposited. From all records of this 

Michigan Ornithological Club 73 

locality two eggs are usually deposited, although one is very often the 
complement. The most noticeable characteristic of the Loon's eggs is the 
variation in size. Some are considerably longer and more pointed than others. 
I found a set of two a year ago last spring which appears to be the eggs of 
two different birds, one of the eggs being very much longer than the other. 

In regard to the nesting sites Mr. Alexander W. Blain, Jr., writes me as 
follows : "One of the most interesting facts which I have noted in regard to 
the nesting of the Loon is the two distinct sites selected for their nests. 
J he first and probably the most common, being those situated in the marsh 
and composed of a floating mass of decaying vegetation, much after the 
fashion of the Grebe nests — or placed on the top of some musk-rat house 
which has sunk almost to the waters edge at this time of the year. The 
second is those which are situated on the land some feet from the water. 
Of the latter type, so to speak, I found a most striking example this spring 
on one of the marl lakes in northern Oakland County. We observed one 
of the birds at a long distance, and from its actions felt sure that it must be 
nesting in one of the small lakes of this chain. A glance at the edge of the 
lake showed that there were no suitable nesting locations, so we rowed to 
a small island out in the middle. As we approached we saw the female 
coming around from the other side. A close search of this island proved that 
they were not nesting there, so we rowed to another small island a short 
distance off. Here we found the nest surrounded by wild rose bushes anj 
shrubs about eight feet from the water on the bank and about two feet above 
high water mark. It was composed of rushes much after the fashion of the 
nests built in the water, but was not quite so elaborate. The two eggs were 
still warm, and later proved to be quite highly incubated. This set was found 
on May 22nd. The day before Mr. Bert Stowell found a nest situated in the 
water containing one egg. He left it, returning in about a week to find that 
the bird had laid no more. The birds of this latter set showed no sign of 
fear, and would come up quite close to us, while with my set the birds could 
no longer be seen after we had reached the nest. I credit the above cited 
land-building habit to the fact that very few weeds or rushes grow in the 
marl and suitable obstruction from view was not afforded. The 
birds had thus selected this location to meet the emergency — another case of 
circumstances effecting location in nest-building." 

On May 17th, 1902, while going through the marshes on one of the lakes 
in the central part of Oakland County, a female Loon rose about thirty 
teet ahead of the boat and joined the male, which was swimming about in 
the middle of the lake. Being unable to locate the nest we left and returned 
later in the day, this time entering the marsh from the opposite direction 
from that which we had the first time. A few minutes later, the female 
appeared on the surface about two hundred yards from the marsh, having 
swum out under water. This time we had no trouble in locating the nest, 
which was merely an old musk-rat house that had sunken almost to the waters 
edge. It was situated on the edge of a small cove in two feet of water and 
contained two fresh eggs. From this it seems that the bird does not always 
cive and swim from the nest, but slides back into the marsh and rises when 
pursued from the lake. 

On a large lake a few miles from where I took my set, a resident of 
one of the small towns in that part of. the county flushed a Loon from its 
nest in the center of a rush island. He took the two eggs which the nest 
contained home with him, and through curiosity placed them under a setting 

74 Bulletin of the 

hen. The hen hatched the little Loons, but in a few days they died from lack 
of proper food, and were mounted by a local taxidermist. 

Mr. Blain has two young about four days old in his collection, collected 
July 3rd, 1902. with the adult male, which shows that the eggs must have 
been deposited at a much later date than the previous mentioned sets, although 
I believe the nesting date of this species is fairly uniform, extending from 
about the middle of May to the middle of June. 

There are records of sets from almost every lake of considerable size in 
this county. I know of lakes where the same pairs of birds nest year after 
year. Dr. P. E. Moody records six sets taken within the last few years 
from a small group of lakes in the central part of the county where he stays. 
After the breeding season it is not an uncommon thing to see four or five 
Loons together on one of these lakes, although they are usually seen in pairs. 

As we know the Loon is a bird of little economic importance — feeding 
mainly on fish, roots of fresh water plants, frogs and aquatic insects — but 
who can imagine our beautiful lakes of Oakland County, amid all their 
beauty and splendor, without the king of the fresh water swimmers or in 
the words of Longfellow : 

"The Loon that laughs and flies 
Down to those reflected skies." 

Detroit. Mich.. August 20. 1903. 


MICHIGAN, 1903. 


On May 20th I left Bayport, Mich., for Big Charity Island, in the hopes 
of adding something new to my collection. I expected also to find the 
American Merganser (AT. Atnericonus) nesting there. 

This island is about twenty miles from Bayport, on Lake Huron, just 
outside of Saginaw Bay — is government property and a lighthouse has stood 
on it for about fifty years. A pair of Bald Eagles has nested on it for a 
great many years. 

Spotted Sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were very numerous and nested 
around the lighthouse in incredible numbers. I counted over twenty nests, 
(containing from one to four eggs) within half an acre. The soil is sandy 
and covered in places with weeds and long grass and on the ridges these 
birds were nesting. They flushed in numbers from their nests and kept up 
their piping notes during the time I stood near them. 

A pair of Piping Plover (Aegialitis mcloda) were flying around and 
running along the sandy beach just above the high water line. I thought 
the birds were the Belted Piping Plover (A. m. circumcincta — Ridgw. ) and 
with my assistants at once started to look for the eggs — a short search soon 
revealed them. The nest was simply a hole scooped in the sand. The four 
eggs which made up the set were incubated about one week. With many 
stones and pebbles surrounding the nest the appearance was most beautiful. 
The parents kept close by. 

I shot the female and was delighted to find that I had secured a nest 
and eggs of the Piping Plover, a bird not supposed to breed in this state. I 
could easily have secured both parents, but did not care to kill more than 
was absolutely necessary for identification. After I had shot the female 
another pair made their appearance, so that there was at least four of these 
birds on the inland. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 75 

I saw a Loon (Urinator imber) swimming within three hundred yards 
of the shore and am satisfied from its actions it either had eggs on shore or 
was about to lay. I saw no American Mergansers on the island and the 
lighthouse keeper, Mr. McDonnell, who has kept the lighthouse for thirty 
years, assured me they did not nest on the island. The Red-breasted Mer- 
ganser (M. serrator) nests on the island regularly. I saw a pair on the 
shore and they probably had eggs laid or were about to nest. 

The island is heavily wooded, has a small lake on it and snakes are very 
plentiful. It has an abundance of hollow trees and two years ago a pair of 
Wood Duck (Aix spoiisa) nested and brought out their young. 

I slept one night in the lighthouse and the Spotted Sandpipers were 
very noisy all the night. The assistant keeper told me they were as noisy 
during all hours of the night as they were in the day and he thought more 
so some nights. I walked around the island several times, a distance of 
several miles, and estimated that at least two hundred pairs of Sandpipers 
were nesting. I climbed many of the hollow trees, but found no ducks 
nesting in any of them. 

The eggs of the Piping Plover resemble very clcsely a set of Belting 
Piping Plover in my collection. The color is a little more creamy and the 
spots a little more pronounced ; they are also a trifle larger. 

The keeper of the lighthouse assured me that they had nested a great 
many years on the point where I found my set. Another trip to the island 
two weeks later failed to bring any new finds. 

Battle Creek, Michigan. 



In his "List of the Land Birds of Southeastern Michigan" (page 38) 
Mr. Swales records a set of eggs of the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus 
savemnarum passerimis) collected in Wayne County by Mr. J. Claire Wood. 
I wish to add another to the list of this bird which is gradually growing 
more abundant in this part of the state. 

On the sixth of July, 1896, while passing through a recently mowed hay 
field, a few miles in back of St. Clair, Mich., one of these birds flushed from 
almost under my feet. The nest well concealed by a small tussock of grass, 
was placed in a slight depression in the ground and contained four slightly 
incubated eggs. They show no resemblance to the eggs of other sparrows 
in my cabinet, having a white ground-color, glossy and spotted with pale 
reddish-brown chiefly at the larger end. 

Mr. Alex. W. Blain, Jr., tells me that while on a week's trip through 
Oakland County this spring, he heard the peculiar drawn-out song of the 
Grasshopper Sparrow at many places while passing through the country in a 
light wagon. 

I should like to hear from members of the club in other parts of the 
state as regards the present and former abundance of this most interesting 
bird. Frederick C. Hubel. 

Detroit, Mich. 


Bulletin of the 


Bay City 




Battle Creek. 





Michigan Ornithological Club 77 



fBMcbigan ©rnitbological Club 




131 Elmwood Avenue, - Detroit, Mich. 

associates : 
J. Claire Wood, - - - Detroit, Mich. 

Adolphe B. Covert, - - - Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Detroit, Mich., September, 1903. 

Subscription; In North America, fifty cents a year, strictly in advance. 
Single copies, fifteen cents. 

Foreign Subscription: Seventy -five cents a year to all countries in the 
Universal Postal Union. 

Free to Members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 


The papers on the Kirtland's Warbler promised to appear in this number 
have been deferred to a later issue. Mr. Wood has since made a second trip 
to Oscoda county in company with Prof. Reighard. 

The article on the Wild Pigeon, published in this issue, is one which 
will be read with wide-spread interest. In a letter accompanying the Mms. 
Mr. Purdy writes : "Some of this may sound strange to the younger ornith- 
ologists, but I have only told too true a story as I saw it in those by-gone 
clays." Dr. Moody's record, published elsewhere in this issue, probably 
records one of the last specimens of this species which shall ever fly over the 
Wolverine state. 

We regret to learn of the sudden death of Wilbur Clinton Knight of 
the University of Wyoming on July 28, 1903, at the age of forty-five. Dr. 
Knight was active in various branches of science, and will be remembered 
by ornithologists as the author of "The Birds of Wyoming." 

On page 42 of the June issue we published a photo of two heron nests in 
an ash tree at the "Clarkston Herony" — but we failed to note that the 
picture also represented Mr. Bert Stowcll, of Pontiac, ninety-two feet from 
tcrra-firma. The lower nest contained five eggs. 

78 Bulletin of the 

Probably few features in the ornithological journals for the current 
year have created more interest than the one now being executed in Bird-Lore, 
in publishing halftones of the members of its "Advisitory Council." When 
completed, Mr. Chapman will be thanked by all bird-students for having in- 
troduced nearly fifty prominent American ornithologists— Wm. E. Saunders, 
of London, Out., well known to Michigan bird-students, appears in the (5th 
series) July- August number. 

We extend our sympathy to Mr. J. Merton Swain, editor of The Jour- 
nal of the Maine Orintho logical Society, whose home was recently visited by 
fire, destroying his books and other papers as well as his birds and other 
natural history specimens. "The collection represented a life-work, and many 
of the rare specimens will probably never be duplicated.*' 

Our fellow member, Walter P. Manton. M. D., of Detroit, was a member 
of Nuttall Ornithological Club while at Harvard. In his early life he was a 
very enthusiastic bird-student, but a confining medical practice has prevented 
him from being active in bird work in later years. Dr. Manton is Clinical 
Professor of Gynaecology and Lecturer on Obstetrics in the Detroit College 
of Medicine, a Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society, of the Zoological 
Society of London, of the American Microscopical Society and a member of 
the Michigan Academy of Science. Dr. Manton is a contributor to various 
medical journals. 

Director A. H. Griffith, of the Detroit Museum of Art, and his assistant, 
Mr. C. H. Burroughs, left July 24th for a three months sojourn through 

Dr. Morris Gibbs, of Kalamazoo, has written an article entitled "Moult- 
ing" in American Ornithology (Vol. iii, No. 8, p. 278) for August. Mr. Reed 
is to be congratulated upon the neat and, incidently, prompt appearance of 
his magazine. The illustrations used are alone worth many times the 
subscription price. 

Dr. Gibbs is also among the contributors to the newly established At- 
lantic Slope Naturalist, edited and published by W. E. Rotzell, M. D., at 
Narberth, Pa. While the latter journal does not adhere solely to ornith- 
ological literature, it nevertheless publishes many notes of interest to bird 

Editor of the Bulletin: 

Dear sir: — T understand that there are a great many Black Terns being 
killed in various sections of the country, and T write to ask you to make a 
special effort to prevent the killing of any of them in Michigan, where it is 
contrary to the law to do so. Will you please take this matter up and see 
if you cannot afford protection to those breeding birds on the St. Clair Flats, 
where I understand they arc very plentiful. Very truly yours, 

Wm. Di'tcher. 
Cha. Protection Connn. A. O. U. 

New York City, July 14th, 1903. 

Mr. Dutcher's efforts are merited. Club members should use their influ- 
ence in protecting these beautiful birds. Better protection should be devised 
for the large colonies at the Flats. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 79 

Errata : Cassinia reviewed on page 54 in the last issue, is the sixth rather 
than the fourth number of the "Proceedings" of the D. V. O. C. Other vex- 
ing errors crept into the last two numbers — some of which are the fault of the 
editor, but most crept in after the proof had left the editor's hands. The full 
"errata'' will be printed later. 

The Migration of Birds, With Special Reference to Nocturnal Flight. 

By H. A. Winkenwerder. Bull. Wis. Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. 2 (N. S), 

No. 4, pp. 177-262, frontispiece and pis. i-viii. Milwaukee, Oct., 1902. 

The author divides his paper into four chapters, (I) A Historical Re- 
view, (II) The Causes of Migration, (111) Migratory Routes, and (IV) The 
Manner of Migration. The first two deal mainly with the writings of 
previous authors, while only in chapters III and IV does he introduce to any 
extent his own investigations. Chapter I covers some nine pages and gives 
a fairly complete review of the principal writings on the subject of bird 
migration, but also includes considerable discussion of the causes of migra- 
tion, which are taken up more fully in the next chapter. After considering 
the various theories of Wallace, Weismann, Merriam, Newton, Brooks, and 
others, the author concludes that "Birds are set in migratory movement by 
a complex combination of changes in temperature, humidity and living nature. 
The cause for migration, however, is the failure of food in two widespread 
areas — the north and the south — at opposite seasons of the year." While 
recognizing the importance of the food supply as a "cause of migration," we 
cannot help feeling that the author's statement is too sweeping, and that he 
has not given sufficient weight to other factors, ncr taken into consideration 
special cases. It is not probable that migration, even among birds, is a phe- 
nomenon of homogeneous origin, to be explained in toto by any one set of 
conditions, except, perhaps, in a most general way. Specific cases must have 
each its own explanation, and in these explanations the varying influence of 
heredity in the different species is a commonly neglected factor. 

Mr. Winkenwerder's original work consists of observations of migrat- 
ing birds at night by the use of a telescope turned upon the moon ; this 
furnishes a lighted field against which birds crossing the line of vision are 
silhouetted. The same method has previously been used by Chapman and 
others, but has been extended and systematized by Mr. Winkenwerder, who, 
with the assistance of others, obtained nearly simultaneous observations at 
several points in the Great Lake region. As regards Migratory Routes the 
conclusions reached are not different from those generally held for the 
majority of our summer-resident land birds, viz.: that there are several 
great routes, or "trunk lines," so to speak, which the birds follow in coming 
northward, principally determined by the major physiographic features, and 
that from these the birds branch off gradually into routes of lesser and lesser 
importance, until they finally become distributed to their various breeding 

It is perhaps with regard to the Manner of Migration that the telescopic 
method of observation offers us most of interest. Thus in regard to the 
altitude attained in migration we are told that "The telescopic observations 
show that there may be a zone of considerable depth, birds choosing variable 
altitudes in which to perform their migrations, but by far the greater number 
do not attain an altitude much over one-half mile from the earth's surface." 
Another conclusion bears out what has already been surmised from field ob- 
servations : "Birds do not fly to some desired resting place in one night and 

80 Bulletin of the 

then pursue their flight to another the next night, nor do they necessarily 
fly throughout the entire night and then stop at the firM convenient place in 
the morning. The simple truth here is that birds fly as far during one 
night as they find convenient, the distance being determined by immediate 
environmental influences." 

While the paper gives us considerable data of interest, recording work 
apparently earnestly and conscientiously done, it seems that the deductions 
are hardly proportionate to the length, especially of the first two chapters. 
In form the paper also leaves much to be desired, especially in the matter 
of citations, while other evidences of lack of care, composition and proof- 
reading are not lacking. In the matter of citations it is a great convenience to 
one wishing to refer to the article quoted to have the reference full and 
clearly comprehensible, while uniformity in style throughout the same 
paper is greatly to be desired, and accuracy should not be sacrified for any 
other consideration. A single example in which these points have not been 
considered will suffice: Mr. Brewster's paper on Bird Migration is cited 
in three places as having been published in the Bulletiii of the Nuttall 
Ornithological Club, and in three other places as in the Memoirs of the 
same society; in two cases the date of publication is given as 1885, in two 
as [886, and in the remaining two it is not mentioned at all. Two or three 
other slips may be mentioned : The second sentence on page 198 makes 
no sense as it stands; altering either one of two words will give it sense, 
but different meanings result according to which is changed. The figure 
on page 199 is inverted from its position in the instructions sent out by the 
author, and as it stands makes difficult an understanding of the instructions 
on the opposite page, as well as the interpretation of the plates which 
follow. Again, the diagram on Plate TV for "8:15 to 8:30" should read 
"8:00 to 8:15," as by turning to p. 234 it will be seen that no observations 
were made during the former period. 

On the whole, Mr. Winkenwerder's contribution is a valuable accession 
to the steadily increasing data on migration, and indicates a line in which, 
by concerted effort, many side-lights, at least, may be thrown upon an 
interesting and puzzling problem. L. J. C. 

Birds in Their Relation to Man. A Manual of Economic Ornithology 
for the United States and Canada. By Clarence M. Weed and Ned 
Dearborn. Philadelphia and London. J. B. Lippicott Company, 1903. 
12 mo. viii-l-380 pages. Numerous illustrations. 

The Topographic Survey of Michigan. By Israel C. Russell (Pres. Mich. 
Academy of Sci. for 1902-03). Printed for the Academy, Ann Arbor, 
Mich., 1903. 

Xat. Comm. of Audubon Soc. Education Leaflets. By Wm. Dutcher. No. 
4 The Robin, No. 5 The Flicker. New York City. T903. 

Am. Ornithology, ITT. Nos. 7, 8, 9, July, Sept., 1903. 

Atlantic Slope Naturalist, I. No. 3, July-August, 1903. 

Auk, XX. No. 3. July, 1903. 

Bird-Lore, V. No. 4, July-August, 1903. 

Condor, V. No. 4, July-August, 1903. 

Journal Maine Orn. Soc. V. No. 3, August, 1903. 

Recreation, XVIII. Nos. 6, 7, 8, July, Sept., 1903. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 81 

Science, (N. S.), XVII. Nos. 442-453. 1903. 

Warbler, I. Nos. I, 2, 3, 4, 1903. 

Wilson Bulletin, (No. 43), X. No. 2, June, 1903. 

In Preparation : "In the Haunts of the Golden-winged Warbler," by 
Warren Jacobs, Waynesburg, Pa. 



A Wild or Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistcs migratorius) was shot Septem- 
ber 14th, 1898, at Chestnut Ridge — a few miles from Detroit, by Frank Cle- 
ments, of this city. The bird — an immature specimen — was later mounted, by 
Chas. Campion and is now in the collection of J. H. Fleming, of Toronto, 
Ont. This is probably the last authentic record of this species in Michigan. 

Detroit, Mich. Philip E. Moody, M. D. 


On May 10th, 1901, I took my first Prairie Warbler (D. discolor) a fine 
female. According to my notes this is a very rare warbler in this county. I 
shall long remember the 14th day of May, 1902, as the "warbler day." It was 
on this day I took my Kirtland's (D. kirtlandi), (see Auk, xix. p. 291 a 
female. I also took my first Orange crowned (H. celata) a beautiful female 
and a fine male Mourning Warbler (G. Philadelphia) . 

The rare White-throated or Brewster's Warbler (H. leucobronchialis) 
was the trophy for May 18th, 1902. It is an adult male, rather larger than 
either H. pinus or H. chrysoptera and much different from either in colora- 
tion. (See Auk. xix. p. 401). 

This coming season I hope to find some new ones, and extend "good 
(warbler) luck" to the rest of the club members 

Ann Arbor. Mich. Norman A. Wood. 

1903 RANDOMS. 

The following Wayne County notes may be of interest : 

Saw several Hermit Thrushes (Turdus aonalaschkoc pallasii) in a large 
woods in Dearborn Township. This is a day earlier than my previous records. 

June 7 — Noticed three pairs of Wilson Warblers (Sylvania pusilla) in 
Grosse Pointe Township. They were mated but not nesting. This is not a 
common warbler here at any season, and these are the first I have observed in 
June. Did not see a single Mourning (Geothlypis Philadelphia) although on 
May 30 it was unusually abundant. 

August 6 — Ecorse Township. Three small flocks of White-throated Spar- 
rows (Zonotrichia albicollis) noted — remarkably early. Also met with three 
Bairds' Sandpipers (Tringa bairdii). I mention this not because I consider 
the occurrence in any way unusual, but because there seems to be a pre- 
vailing opinion that the species is somewhat rare in the state. Another 
bird I have seen mentioned as rare is the Gray-cheeked Thrush (Turdus 
alicoc) while as a matter of fact it is a common migrant here. 

Detroit, Mich. J. Claire Wood. 

82 Bulletin of the 


It is always a pleasure to add to the avi-fauna of a region which is com- 
paratively well known. It was with the hope of adding Ammodramus 
henslowi to the list of breeding birds of the American portion of the St. 
Clair Flats that Mr. Frederick C. Hubel and myself took a trip to the marshes 
situated in about the center of Big Mu>camoot Bay on June 16th, 1903. 

We observed no Henslow's, but early in the afternoon we flushed a small 
sparrow from her nest and four eggs in the tall thick grass. As it was about 
to rain darkness prevented us from getting a good sight of the bird, and the 
cries of a hundred, or more, Black Terns prevented us from hearing any notes 

which the bird might have uttered. 

Notwithstanding our lack of proper identification, we returned home 
with the find. Upon showing them to Mr. J. Claire Wood he at once pro- 
nounced them the eggs of the Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza gcorgiana) . I 
later sent the nest and three eggs (one egg broken while blowing) to Mr. 
Wm. E. Saunders, of London, Out., who answered as follows : ''Replying 
further to yours of June 23rd, I have studied the eggs you sent and have 
reached a surprising but well defined conclusion. They are Swamp Spar- 
rows' ! The color agrees in every respect with some in my collection, so does 
size — yours run 81 x 56, 79 x 58, 82 x 61. One of mine in a set all alike is 
80 x 57 (Sarnia, June 8, 1892.) 

"Savannahs are about the same size, but they don't get the dirty-brownish 
blotches with washed edges that the Swamp have, and mine are all in uniform 
sets, while the Swamp often has an egg with the greenish ground of yours. 
Henslow's 1 haven't — except the birds. Davie gives the size of the Henslow eggs 
as 75 x 57, but Leconte's, which is the same sized bird, lays an egg 65 x 50 
(by the same author.) The Grasshopper, which lays a large egg for its size. 
and is more nearly the size of the Savannah, is stated as 73 x 56. So it's 
likely the size of Henslow is an error and 65 x 50 is near it. Of course you 
know that sparrows eggs can't be identified with certainty, but I am nearly 
sure of these." The conclusion reached by Messrs. Saunders and Wood 
seems of sufficient evidence to me to admit the Swamp Sparrow as a breeding 
bird at the St. Clair Flats. 

Detroit. Mich. Alexander W. Blain, Jr. 


On the 1 8th of July, 1902, Harry E. Purdy shot an albino crow-black- 
bird or Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula aeneus) at this place. Its plumage was 
not pure white, but shaded very slightly into slate color. The feet, legs and 
mandibles were pure white. It was a young-of-year bird in its first plumage, 
and I think that if it had lived to receive its adult plumage it would have 
been pure white. This specimen was mounted and is now in my collection. 

Plymouth. Mich. James B. Purdy. 


Much interest has been manifested of late by contributors of various 
bird magazines, chiefly Bird-Lore and the Oologist regarding the nesting of 
Chaetura pclagica in barns and locations other than chimneys. 

I have found them breeding quite common on the inner walls of barns in 
St. Clair County, Michigan. I know of four barns within a radius of a 

Michigan Ornithological Club 83 

half a mile, each of which contain one nest. The nests I have observed it 
this locality contained sets of four and six respectively. 

Dr. P. E. Moody found a nest on May 23rd, 1903, in a small boat house 
situated on the edge of a lake in Oakland County. 

Detroit, Mich. Frederick C. Hubel. 


One season, back in the eighties, I took two sets of six eggs of the Red- 
shoulder (Buteo lineatas) and nearly three years expired before I learned 
that the boys "loaded" the nests and then steered me to them. However, 
1 have since succeeded in securing, in Wayne County, four genuine sets of 
five as follows : 

April 13, 1892 — Greenfield Township. Nest 40 feet above ground in 
swamp oak. Female shot and proved to be a young bird of the third year. 

April 19, 1901. — Greenfield Township. Nest in main fork of black oak 
thirty feet above ground. Female seen at close range and was a bird of 
the third year. 

April 19, 1903. — Van Buren Township. Nest twenty-five feet above 
ground in black oak sapling. 

April 19, 1903. — Van Buren Township. Nest fifty-five feet above ground 
in beech. 

The latter two were old birds that had each deposited four eggs eveiy 
year since 1896, when I first located them. 

Detroit, Mich. J. Claire Wood. 

On May 27, 1903, our hustling editor, Mr. Bert Stowell, and myself 
were returning from a fifty mile hike after nests of the Loon. We were still 
about ten miles from home and had had the proverbial fisherman's luck, it 
rained every day and Bert ate all the grub while we were not looking. But 
just at this stage of the game a Ruby-throat {Trochilus. colubns) 
dashed across the road and spun into a small piece of woods to our left. I 
observed him and suggested to our editor that that piece of woods 
looked like a likely place for the Cooper's Hawk. He agreed and followed 
me over the fence into the woods. Bert held the horse and scraped off the 
ragged edges of a piece of gunny sack to smoke a cigarette. We started 
into the woods and in about two minutes located the Hummer's nest. 

It was situated in a small hickory and was saddled on a branch thirty 
feet from the ground and about five feet out on the limb. Upon examination 
it proved to be only partially built and contained no eggs. We grunted our 
disapproval and left after having obtained our bearings and a good look 
at the Hummer as it buzzed over our heads. I figured that it would take 
about a week to complete the nest and lay the two eggs. I made a pretty 
good guess, for June the third I drove those ten miles again and found the 
nest completed and one egg in it. The bird seemed to be not over joyed at 
my visit but settled back on the nest just before I left. Now comes the part- 
ing shot. Two days later 1 drove the ten miles again and found the 
bird gone, eggs or egg gone, and the nest partially destroyed. I drove home 
again over the ten miles and figured that I had driven fifty miles after 
that nest. 

A few days later, June 9th, I made up my mind I would get a set of 
Hummer's eggs if I had to make them myself, so I started out in a drizzling 


Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club 

rain and made for a piece of woods about a quarter of a mile away. Well, I 
saw a lot of birds that interested me; found two nests of the Red-eve. one of 
the Yellow-throated Vireo and one of the Scarlet Tanager when a familiar 
hum caught my ear. and looking up I saw my Hummer's nest just over my 
head. In two minutes I had the eggs carefully wrapped up and in my col- 

Nest and Eggs of the Ruby-Throated Humming Bird 
Selected from a series in the collection of J. Warren Jacobs. 

lection box and sat on the limb watching the bird as it hummed the most 
pleasing tune I then thought I had ever heard. The nest was in a small 
oak and like the other was saddled on a horizontal limb about thirty feet up 
and five feet out on the branch. 

Moral : — Hunt in your own backyard and don't go all over the county 
for the nest of a common resident. By your own back yard I mean some 
good piece of woods you are thoroughly familiar with. 

Detroit, Mich Philip E. Moody, M. D. 


August 7th. — Meeting held at the Detroit Museum of Art. Vice-Presi- 
dent Moody in the chair. "The Passenger Pigeon in the Early Days of 
Michigan," by J. B. Purdv. "Two Winged Robbers," by W. C. Wood. "The 
Cardinal Grosbeak," by T. Jefferson Butler, were presented. Dr. P. E. 
Moody spoke of finding five broods of young of the Screech Owl within a 
radius of a mile in Oakland County, Mich. Adjourned. 

September 4th.— Meeting held at the Detroit Museum of Art. "Nesting 
of the Piping Plover on Big Shanty Island. Michigan, 1903," and "Meganscr 
dmeneanus Nesting at Saginaw Bay, Michigan, iox>2-'03," by E. Arnold, and 
"The Song of a Nest Robber," by J. C. Wood, were presented. L. J. Eppin- 
ger spoke of some birds he had received for mounting, and A. W. Blain, Jr., 
gave notes on some common birds. After a social time the meeting adjourned. 

Frederick C Hubel, Sec'y. pro tern. 


Each member of the Club, not in arrears for dues, is entitled to two 
exchange notices, of thirty words each, during the year; other subscribers 
one such notice. 

WANTED. — Sets of eggs containing abnormal specimens, such as 
runts, albinos, monstrosities, abnormally colored or shaped eggs. Will give 
cash or good exchange. J. Warren Jacobs, Waynesburg, Pa. 

WANTED. — Short-range photographs of wild birds, mammals and 
reptiles in nature, (excluding the commonest passerine birds of the eastern 
U. S., as Robins, Bluebirds, and Chickadees). Good prices paid for satis- 
factory pictures. Address Abbott H. Thayer, Monadnock, N. H., U. S. A. 

TO EXCHANGE. — Birds' skins and sets for sets. J. Claire Wood, 179 
17th Street, Detroit, Mich. 

WANTED. — Every dealer and collector to send me his address that I 
may send out sample sheets of my Standard Field Note and Data Blank 
Books, endorsed by advanced collectors and dealers. Recommended by 
Ornithological Clubs. "All answered." Geo. W. Morse, Box 230, Ashley, 

LOUIS J. EPPINGER.— Taxidermist. 516 Chene Street, Detroit, Mich. 

SOUTHERN EGGS FOR EXCHANGE.— Choice sets with full and 
accurate data. List for stamp. Dr. M. T. Cleckley, Augusta, Georgia. 

WANTED.— Bulletin of the Mich. Orn. Club, Vol. I., No. 3 and 4; Vol. 
II., Nos. 2, 3 and 4; Vol. 111., Nos. 1 and 2. State condition and cash price. 

Fred'k C. Hubel, 112 Alexanderine Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

WANTED. — First class sets of eggs. Can offer in exchange some fine 
things, including rare Falcons, Warblers, Cranes, Etc., for desirable sets. 
E. Arnold, Battle Creek, Mich. 

WANTED.— Copies of the Nuttall Bulletin and the Auk 1884-00. Also 
fine Warbler Skins. Will pay cash. B. H. Swales, 191 Kirby Ave., Detroit, 


Complete instructions for presei'ving and mounting Birds, Game Heads, 
Fishes, etc., etc., and also how to dress Skins with hair on for rugs and robes. 

Hunters, Trappers, Anglers, Collectors and all others interested in sav- 
ing tophies for decoration or sale, send stamp for free instruction Morris 
Gibbs, M. D., Lovel Street, Kalamazoo, Mich. 



Vol. IV., No. 4 

December, 1903. 






(No. 14) 

Published Quarterly 

In the Interests ol Ornithology 

in the Great Lake Region. 


Entered April 20th, 1003, at Detroit, Mich., as second-class mail matter under me Act 01 Congress 

July iCth, 1894. 



Nesting of the White-breasted Nuthatch (with half- 
tone). By Edwin G. Mummery 85 

Nesting of the Sandhill Crane in Michigan. By ( 

Edward Arnold 86 

Purple Martin Notes from Waynesburg, Pa., (with 

halftone) . By J. Warren Jacobs 87 

Michigan Ornithologists (3rd series). Halftones of 
Prof. W. B. Barrows, B. H. Swales, L. J. Cole, 
W. C. Wood 89 

Editorial 90 

Recent Literature (1 drawing by D. W. Hunting- 
ton) 91 

Correspondence : 

Bird Migration 93 

Club Prospects for 1904 94 

Notes from the Field and Museum (10 short articles) 

Halftone of the U. of M. Museum 95 

Minutes of Club Meetings 98 

Constitution of the Michigan Ornithological Club. 99 


is published on the fifteenth of March, June, September 
and December, by the Michigan Ornithological Club, at 
Detroit, Mich. 

Subscription : Fifty cents a year, including postage, 
strictly in advance. Single numbers, fifteen cents. Free 
to members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

All subscriptions, articles and communications in- 
tended for publication and all publications and books for 
notice, should be addressed to the Editor, Alexander W. 
Blain, Jr., 131 Elmwood Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Articles of general interest relating to the bird life of 
the Great Lake Region are solicited. They should be in 
the hands of the editor not later than the 20th of the 
month preceding publication. 


A Bi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Study , and Protection of Birds 

Published for the National Committee of the Audubon Societies, as the official organ of the Societies. 


Audubon Department edited by MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT and WILLIAM DUTCHER 
BIRD-LORE'S Motto; A Bird in the Bush is Worth Tzvo in the Hand 

IN a BIRD-LORE." I ts pages are filled with descriptions of experiences with 
birds in field and forest from the pens of writers who have won world-wide fame 
as literary naturtiists.CjAmong the contributors to Bird-Lore are 

JoHN>BuR^puGH^ V Ernest Thompson Seton J. A. Allen 

Dr. H^ry \&n DVke vj Olive Thorne Miller William Brewster 

Bradford Tori^y t+* tldrence Merriam Bailey Robert Ridgway 

and numerous othe^ \vT?jter?^no\riLboth for their powers of observation and des- 
cription. &- Jfr C <S S^ 

In addition to ge^rar^^esci^Dtive/jarticles, Bird-Lore has departments "For 
Teachers and Students,* ^her^i afiWre gixen. useful hints in bird-study, and "For 
Young Observers, " designeajk) SWelop J^he^tyave of birds inherent in all children. 
These, with reviews of curren*^orni$j>olo£ft»l ^terature, editorials, teachers' leaflets, 
and reports of the work of the ^hdu^ci !$feietie& make a magazine which no bird- 
lover can do without. %y~ ^ * vJL O^ 

Not less delightful and entertaining *h an ^ e **£* are Bird-Lore's illustra- 

*)ir*ls in fheir haunts, showing them 

feeSong feydr y< 
l s^ries^jf pfofes L 
accurately illustrating "^ -<V ^ 

as well as 

tions, which include actual photographs* of tli^ bif*ls in fheir haunts, si 
at rest and in motion, brooding their eggs, of feeding Vkdr young, 
drawings. A feature of the coming year will be a^^iesVC plafes by Bruce Horsfall 
accurately illustrating "^ <V ^ ^ 


with figures of the male, female, and young (when their pluitiagesPdifTetfjL of every 
North American member of this fascinating family. <0 V* G 

The text accompanying these beautiful pictures will be by foofe^or W. W. 
Cooke, from data in the possession of the Biological Survey at 'Washington, and will 
give the times of arrival and departure of the Warblers from hundreds of localities 
throughout their ranges. 


THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers for the Audubon Society 

Crescent and Mulberry Sts., Harrisburg, Pa., or 66 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Please find enclosed One Dollar, for which mail me BIRD-LORE for the year 

Volume VI begins 
Feb. J, J904 




Annual Subscription, $(.00; Single Numbers, 20 cents. 

From BIRD-LORE'S Series of North American Warblers. 

1 3lackeurnJan Warbler. Adult Male. 
•3 Prothonotary Warbler, Adult Male. 

2. Blackburnjan Warbler, Female. 
4. Prothonotary Warbler, Female. 



Michigan Ornithological Club 

PtJBLisHED Quarterly in the Intjbkests of Ornithology 

in the Great Lake Region. 

Vol. IV. DECEMBER, 1903. No. 4. 



(With photo by the author.) 
The White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinciisis) is one of our most 
common and fairly well known birds. Its acquaintance is best made in the 
early springtime when it may be seen in more or less numbers in woods 
where preferrably oak and elm trees of large growth are found. The natural 
cavities selected by the birds in such trees for nesting purposes usually extend 
straightly inward, often with a part turn, to a distance of fully ten inches. 
As this is one of our earliest nesting birds — preparations commencing in early 
April — the selecting of natural openings in sound live trees no doubt insures 
protection to both eggs and young from the severe weather usually experienced 


at that time of year. The lining of the nest also insures warmth to its occu- 
pants, it being of the finest and softest grasses, strips of delicate bark lining, 
and feathers apparently of the bird itself, and makes in its entirety a most 
beautiful foundation for the eggs. I am of the opinion — after locating several 
nesting trees of this bird — that it does not nest in the decayed trunks of trees 
as has been stated. 

The Nuthatch is undoubtedly a bird of great industry, and therefore — 
especially when in search of food — a tireless worker, exceedingly quick and 

86 Bulletin of the 

energetic in its movements and characteristically bright, bold and fearless when 
in or near its nesting place. That this bird is a valuable one and should by 
all means be protected there is no doubt. Investigation clearly determines the 
almost inconceivable number of insects and larvae destroyed daily by this 
active and attractive little bird. The eggs and nest lining shown in photo- 
graph were taken from an elm tree thirty inches in diameter at base ; nesting 
opening being fifty-eight feet from ground. Lining of nest with eggs was 
placed on the ground and photographed. 

To closely observe this bird during its nesting period one must expect 
to encounter what is usually considered very unpleasant conditions of the 
weather. The woods and meadows, therefore, often present a variety of ap- 
pearances even in a single day. Wind, rain, and often snow storms are met in 
the space of a few hours, and the snow which in the morning lightly covered 
the ground has by nightfall entirely disappeared due to the falling of the soft 
spring rain or the increasing warmth of the sun which has occasionally shone 
through the broken and drifting clouds. These climatic changes though are 
merely considered as incidental to the object in view, and to an extent — at 
least while they last — are more or less enjoyed. The observations above men- 
tioned were made in the spring of 1903 near Royal Oak, Oakland County, 
Michigan. 4 

Detroit, Mich, Sept. Jjth, 1903. 



The Sandhill Crane (Grus mexicana) still nests .sparingly in southern 
Michigan. I have heard of a pair nesting within twenty miles of Battle Creek 
within the past five years. 

On May 8th, 1901. I started from Battle Creek for Jackson to try and 
locate a nest of this bird, a friend having told me that he had seen a pair 
of birds in a certain marsh. About five o'clock the same day in spite of the 
fact that it was raining, I hired a farmer boy and at once started in quest 
of the nest. The country was hilly and the marsh covered with a scattering 
of tamarack trees. The boy told me the cranes flew across the marsh morn- 
ing and evening calling their peculiar notes. The marsh grass and rushes were 
thick, the mud and water deep, and to add to the difficulty of traveling fallen 
trees were scattered all over the marsh — some flat on the ground, some under 
the grass and water and the rest three or four feet above the grass. 

After an hour and a half of hard work I flushed one of the birds from 
her nest and found the two eggs. The nest was located in the center of an 
acre of marsh surrounded by tamarack trees and was a massed lot of grass 
tamarack stems and willow brush about ten inches deep, the top about one 
half foot above the water. The bird flew when I w r as within one hundred 
feet of the nest — I had previously circled it several times and she must have 
been there all the time. 

The eggs measure 3.80x2.49 and 3.85x2.52. The ground color is a light 
greenish ashy buff spotted and blotched with reddish, dark brown and 
various heliotrope shades. 

On the 5th of May, 1902, I located this same pair of birds in the marsh 
within a half mile of the first nest T found the previous year, and the birds 
acted in a similar manner. The space where nest was built was surrounded 
by tamarack trees, and dead trees were lying in the long heavy marsh grass 

Michigan Ornithological Club 87 

all around the nest, making locomotion very difficult. The nest was similar 
in construction and situation to the one described above. The two eggs 
measure 3.73x2.55 -f- 3.85x2.60. Incubation in both sets was advanced about 
one week with the exception of one egg of the '01 set, which was addled. Both 
sets are very handsome. 

The cranes flew around the marsh after I took the eggs and I could hear 
their peculiar rolling guttural cries for several hours. I stayed near the nest 
until dark in both cases and had a good chance to observe the actions of one 
of the birds — which I believe was the female. 

Early in May of this year I again visited the locality searched this marsh 
and adjoining one very thoroughly and did not see the birds. A farmer living 
close by told me both birds were around early in the spring, but had not been 
seen for several weeks and it is supposed that one or both birds fell victims 
to a farmer's gun. 

I have a beautiful set taken in Summerfield township, Monroe County, on 
May 2nd, 1880, by Michigan's veteran ornithologist and collector, Mr. Jerome 
Trombley. The data reads as follows : "Nest was placed on the ground on a 
small island of willows in the midst of a small marsh of ten or twelve acres 
in extent. The marsh was surrounded with trees and bushes in a wild, 
retired place. The nest consisted of a mass of dried willow brush coarse 
stems of marsh grass slightly hollowed and lined with a little dry grass, 
eggs fresh, bird shot." Eggs measure 3.80x2.35 -f- 375x2.34. They are as 
usual very handsome. The color is a rich brown spotted and blotched with 
dark brown, reddish brown and grayish violet making the general appearance 
of the eggs much darker than in my sets. 

Bitterns and Swamp Sparrows were plentiful where I took the crane's 
eggs and in some future number of the BULLETIN I hope to write an arti- 
cle on the nesting habits of both of these birds. 

My cabinet contains a series of six sets of this bird. The Florida eggs 
are the smallest and lightest in color of the series. 

Battle Creek, Mi eh.. Nov. 3rd. 1903. 



(With plwto by the author.) 

To accommodate the Martins (P rogue subis) which has nested in the 
oldest of my bird-houses, I built and erected, last April, a handsome sixty- 
six room structure which brought the total up to one hundred and forty-five 
rooms for their use. 

Notwithstanding this increase of nesting quarters, my colony did not 
show much, if any. increase in the number of nesting pairs. This is due, per- 
haps, to the fact that a week of cold, wet weather, during the latter part of 
June, 1902, was the cause of death of 150 young and several old birds. 

A similar fate visited' them again this year, but was more sweeping in 
its effect upon the young, only one brood surviving. At this time, however — 
June 15th — a very large number of the nests contained eggs which hatched 
out later. 

From house No. 2 I took 40 young and one old dead bird. This old 
one covered five young, four of which were still alive, but cold and stiff. I 
tried to raise these by hand but failed, the last one living only about two days, 


Bulletin of the 

In house No. 3, 39 young and two old birds were found dead. A total of 80 

About forty nests contained eggs on this date, most of which hatched 
shortly after the cold rains ceased and numerous young came out between 
July 18th and 25th. 

Evidently all the unfortunate parents, who lost their broods, hatched 
out new ones as many of them were rebuilding their nests a few days after 
their misfortune, and on August 10th there were twelve broods of young in 
house Xo. 3 which had contained eleven or twelve nests full of dead birds 
in June, and in house No. 2 there was a corresponding number of young 
while no late broods came out of box Xo. 4. which contained only eggs at 
the time of the rains. 


I visited other bird-houses in and near town and found the same dis- 
tressing conditions existed. In a number of cases the decomposing young 
were removed and the old birds rebuilt and hatched broods. One instance, 
however, differed from the rest : in this the whole colony moved from an old 
to a newly erected box a few hundred yards distant. The dead birds, how- 
ever, had been left in the old box. 

A singular fact is that after so many young birds died last year, none 
of the old birds rebuilt, but my personal observations this year show that 
nearly if not all the unfortunate parents brought out late broods. This may 
be accounted for by this year's misfortune occurring at hatching time, while 
in the previous instance the young were just beginning to leave their nests. 

Waynesburg, Pa.. Nov. 5, 190$. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 


s% '"W 



Ann Arbor. 


Agricultural College. 



90 Bulletin* of the 



fflMcbigan ©rnitbological Club 




131 Elmwood Avenue, - Detroit, Mich. 

associates : 
J. Claire Wood, - - - Detroit, Mich. 

Adolphe B. Covert, - - - Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Detroit, Mich., December. 1903. 

Subscription: In North America, fifty cents a year, strictly in advance. 
Single copies, fifteen cents. 

Foreign Subscription : Seventy-five cents a year to all countries in the 
Universal Postal Union. 

Free to members of the Club not in arrears for dues. 

We wish to again call the attention of members to the work of the com- 
mittee on Geographical Distribution. Each member should search out his 
records and notes on the species selected (see page 29, March issue), and 
mail to chairman, Dr. Chas. C. Adams, Museum. University of Mich.. Ann 
Arbor. Too much attention cannot be given to this work, and it is hoped 
that all students in the state will co-operate with the committee in extending 
this line of study. 

We are pleased to present to our readers an article on the Martin colony 
of J. Warren Jacobs, whose recent Gleanings No. 2, ''The Story of a Martin 


An index to the present volume of the Bulletin will be mailed with the 
March issue, also a list of the members of the club. Any change in address 
should be reported promptly. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 91 

Colony," created much interest. The following quotation from a recent let- 
ter will be of interest : "This year closes my twentieth in bird work and 
research along this line and I have all of my notes and field books from 1886 
down to the present. Lack of time prevents me from bringing out new num- 
bers of Gleanings oftener, but the time may come when I can have printed 
at least two numbers annually." 

After the first of the year Charles E. Wisner will assume the office 
of business manager of the Club. All dues, subscriptions and communi- 
cations of a business nature should be sent to Air. Wisner at 11 15 Brooklyn 
avenue, Detroit, Mich. It is hoped that all members will pay up their dues 
promptly as the Bulletin can not be sent to those in arrears. 

The recent bird-bill introduced by Wm. Dutcher failed to become a 
law. We hope that the Michigan legislature will be aware of the eco- 
nomic value of our birds by 1905, so that the bill will then become a 
law. Mr. Dutcher has the thanks of the bird-men of the state for his 
untiring and commendable efforts. 

Samuel N. Rhoads, of Philadelphia, has embarked as a dealer in 
"Old and new books, journals and proceedings relating to the natural 
sciences." Among the bird-books offered in General Catalogue No. 1, is 
an original set of Audubon's "Birds of America" (4 vols., plates), and the 
accompanying "Ornithological Biographies." (5 vols., text!), for $3000.00. 

Our fellow member, the Hon. Peter White, of Marquette, has been 
mentioned as a possible candidate for Governor of Michigan at the 
coming election. Mr. White is well qualified to fill the position and 
the Bulletin hopes that he will see fit to become a candidate. 

As we go to press we regret to learn that Frederick C. Hubel, one of 
the best known of the younger ornithologists of the state, is seriously 
iH at Harper Hospital, Detroit. The latest report from Dr. Philip E. 
Moody, says Mr. Hubel is slowing improving. We sincerely hope that 

he will soon be with us again. 

The long-delayed revised edition of Coues' Key has at last appeared. 
This work will receive further notice in the March issue. 


Our Feathered Game, A Handbook of the North American Game-Birds. 

By Dwight W. Huntington. Charles Scribner's Sons.' New York. 1903. 

12 mo., xii., 396 pages, 8 full-page colored plates, 29 full-page half-tones. 

Price, $2.00; postage, 15 cents. 

In a volume of forty-seven chapters Mr. Huntington has treated in a 
most excellent style all of the species of North American birds com- 
monly hunted as game. The work, of course, as the name would imply, 
appeals strongly to sportsmen, but it is not of less interest to the 
ornithologist. Frequent anecdotes from the author's own experience add 
to the charm of the work and the eight full-page colored plates of shoot- 


Bulletin of the 

ing scenes will attract no less interest. The latter are similar to the 
author's well known illustrations in his "In Brush, Sedge and Stubble.*' 

Following the "Introduction" and chapters on "Guns and Dogs," 
'"Game Clubs, Parks and Preserves," the work is divided into three 
parts: (i) "Gallinaceous Birds" (bob-white, turkey, pheasant, grouse, 

I * 



(Half-tone reduction of colored frontispiece.) 

ptarmigan, etc.); (2) "The Wild Fowl or Swimmers" (goose, ducks, swan. 
coot, etc.), and (3) "The Shore Birds or Waders" (woodcock, snipe, 
sandpiper, plover, cranes, rails, pigeon, etc.), and the various species of 
"game" are described in an orderly manner. Following this is an "Ap- 
pendix'' giving a brief description of the species discussed. We are 
pleased to note that the author recognizes the necessity for stringent 
game protection. 

"Our Feathered Game" is the best all-round book on North Ameri- 
can game birds that has as yet come under our notice. 

A. W. B.. Jr. 

Catalogue of Canadian Birds. Part II. Birds of Prf.y. Woodpeckers, Fly- 
catchers, Crows. Jays and Blackbirds. By John Macoun, Naturalist 
to the Geological Survey of Canada. Ottawa, 1903. 8 vo. pages i-iv., 219- 
413. Price, to cents. 

Michigan Ornithological Club 93 

The Economic Value of Birds to the State. By Frank M. Chapman, 
Associate Curator of Mammalogy and Ornithology in American Museum 
of Natural History. (Published by the New York Forest, Fish and 
Game Commission.) J. B. Lyon Co., Printers, iax>3-, 4 vo -> PP- I_ 66, 
12 colored plates. 

Am. Ornithology III., Nos. io, n, 12, October, December, 1903. 

Atlantic Slope Naturalist I., Nos. 4, 5, September-October, November, 

Auk, The XX (n. s.) No. 4, October, 1903. 

Bird-Lore, V., Nos. 5, 6, September-October, November-December, 1903. 

Condor, V., Nos. 5, 6, September-October, November-December, 1903. 

Journal Maine Orn. Soc., V., No. 4, October, 1903. 

Oologist, XX., No. 1, November, 1903. 

Recreation, XIX., Nos. 4, 5, 6, October, November, December, 1903. 

Science (n. s.) XVII., Nos. 454-4^6, 1903- 

Warbler, I., Nos. 5, 6, September-October, November-December, 1903. 

Wilson Bulletin (No. 44), X., No. 3, September, 1903. 

Zoological Quarterly Bulletin, (Penna. Dept. Agric), Vol. I., No. 1-8, 
May-December, 1903. 

The Oologist, which has not been issued for a number of months 
has again resumed publication. Beginning with 1904 Mr. Earnest H. 
Short, of Rochester, N. Y., will assume the editorship. Dr. Frank H. 
Lattin will continue as publisher. 

Bird-Lore begins in the November-December issue a series of 
colored plates illustrating all of the North American warblers. "The 
text accompanying these beautiful pictures will be by Prof. W. W. 
Cooke, from data in the possession of the Biological Survey at Wash- 
ington, and will give the time of arrival and departure of the warblers 
from hundreds of localities throughout their ranges." 


To the Editor of the Bulletin: 

It may interest some of your readers to know that, according to a note in 
a recent number of Nature (Vol. 68, p o:>8), the director of the station of 
the German Ornithological Society at Rossitten, in Eastern Prussia, in order 
to obtain information as to their migrations, proposes to attach metal rings, 
each bearing a number and the date, to the legs of crows and rooks, which 
will then be set at liberty. These birds are taken alive in numbers at Ros- 
sitten during both migrations each year by means of nets. Notices have been 
sent all over Germany requesting that if any of these birds are shot that the 
feet, with the rings, be returned to Rossitten. In the March number of this 
Bulletin (Vol. IV., No. 1, pp. 19-22) I published some "Suggestions for a 
Method of Studying the Migrations of Birds," in which I advocated in the 
main another method of studying migration, but also suggested tagging the 
birds, apparently just as is now being done at Rossitten. It seems to me that 
if there is any way in which live birds can be obtained in sufficient numbers 
that it would be an excellent thing for individuals, or a committee, of "the 
Michigan Ornithological Club to undertake similar work in this country. 

Leon J. Coi.e. 

94 Hn.I.KTlK OV Tin'. 

Members of the Michigan Ornithological Club : 

With the present issue of the Bulletin the re-organized Michigan 
Ornithological Club completes the first year of its existence. From the 
many letters of congratulation received from prominent ornithologists 
we feel that the Club has come to stay and likewise its official organ 
and moreover that the efforts of its members during the past year 
have not been spent in vain. 

Michigan being a great state and its members scattered over a large 
area, it is impossible for all but a comparative few to attend the meet- 
ing and receive the benefits for which the Club was organized. The 
Bulletin is thus a necessity for the Club's existence and its function there- 
fore to form a common means of communication and to publish original 
ornithological matter pertaining to the region about the Great Lakes. 
It is the hope of the editor that during the coming year the Bulletin will 
more successfully fulfill its mission and that members will contribute 
more freely. 

The prospects for 1904 are brighter than ever before, and we hope 
that members will start in with renewed spirit to make the Club a 
greater success — thus further extending our knowledge of our friends, 
the birds. 

Washing you a happy and successful ornithological year, I am. 

Yours fraternally, 




A fine specimen of the Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus), 
female, was shot at Point Mouille, Mich., on November 27th, 1903, and 
later received by Louis J. Eppinger, the Detroit taxidermist. This 
makes the second authentic record of this wandering species for the 
state. The first authentic specimen was taken at Otter Lake, Lapeer 
county on Sept. 28th, 1897, and recorded by Prof. Walter B. Barrows 
in this journal (Vol. I, No. 4, p. 47). 

Mr. Eppinger has mounted the former specimen and will present 
it to the ornithological collection of the Detroit Museum of Art. 

Alexander W. Blain, Jr. 

Detroit, Mich. 



Each winter since 1899 onc or more Cardinals (C. cardinalis) have 
wintered on the campus of the Agricultural College (in Lansing town- 
ship. Ingham Co.), and have lingered until late spring. In the early 
summer of 1902 one was seen several times, and during the winter fol- 

Michigan Ornithological Club 95 

lowing three or more birds, one a female, were seen constantly. They 
were seen almost daily until the first of June, but although convinced 
that they were nesting, I searched in vain for the nest. On June 6, 
1903, a party of students while surveying ran a line through a dense 
clump of Norway spruces on the campus, and a short time afterward 
instructor B. O. Longyear, following their track, found the nest of the 
Cardinal bottom up on the ground, with two eggs beside it, both some- 
what incubated. The nest was restored to its original position on a 
near-by horizontal branch of spruce, about four feet from the ground, 
with the eggs, but the birds did not return to it, and after lingering in 
the vicinity for two days they disappeared and have not been seen since. 

The nest and eggs (one egg broken) are now in the College museum. 
This is the first record of the actual nesting of this species in the 
county, so far as I know. 

Walter B. Barrows. 

Agricultural College, Mich. 


When one of our summer residents is observed in the north in 
•,vinter it at once excites interest within the breast of the bird-student, 
but on the contrary when a winter resident is seen in the summer it is 
not given much notice. The latter case is probably not rare, but the 
density of foliage at this period of the year obscures them from view 
and the student can always find much of interest without seeking devi- 
ations from the normal. 

To observe a male Junco {J unco hyemalis) in Elmwood cemetery 
of this city on the 25th of June, 1903, was indeed a surprise to me, for 
I had observed the last migrants of this species on May 4th, and telt 
sure that all had left us by that time. 

I spent some time in observing him and listening to his song. He 
flew into a flock of Chipping Sparrows, who not caring for his com- 
pany drove him away. At last disappearing, it was not until July 15th 
that he again came under my notice. He was as before quite fearless. 
The following day I again observed him feeding. From then to the 
21st of August he was missing. This time his song had ceased, but ho 
was as tame as before, allowing us to get quite close to him. On the 
20th of September I again observed him and a few days later flocks of 
his kind were abundantly scattered over the cemetery. 

The cause of his summering here could probably have been ex- 
plained upon dissection, but I preferred to continue my observations. 
He was probably wounded, so that migration at the proper season was 
impossible. Alexander W. Blatn, Jr. 

Detroit, Mich. 


Having found the Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) nesting in locations 
not mentioned in Frederick C. Hubel's communication (page 82, Sept. No.) 
I step into the deal thinking that, perhaps, further observation might interest 
some of the readers. Like Mr. Hubel, I have found the species nesting in 

96 Bulletin of the 

barns and not more than one pair to a barn, but I once found three nests 
in three barns in one barnyard. This was near Saline, Washtenaw Co. 

hi what is now known as the Village of Highland Park, Wayne Co., a 
pair occupied the chimney of an old house each year until the structure blew 
down. They then took up their quarters in the hollow of an elm about fifty 
feet away. I did not disturb them. There was another abandoned dwelling 
in the same neighborhood where a pair glued their nest to the clapboards in 
the attic, although the chimney was in an excellent state of preservation and 
had not been used for years. Another nest was found at north Detroit, in 
the top of a large railroad water tank — the station master having purposely 
left the trap door open and had done so for some years or so he stated. 
Years ago three pairs occupied a hollow elm near the Woodward avenue 
street car barns, of this city. By standing a short distance from the tree one 
of the nests could be seen directly opposite the opening, but in order to see 
the remainder it was necessary to peer up through the trunk, there being a 
large hole at the base. 

In this locality the Chimney Swift breeds abundantly in tree cavities and 
from personal observations I doubt if more than fifty per cent, nest in chim- 
neys. J. Claire Wood. 

Detroit, Mich. 


Records of the Saw-whet Owl (Nyctala acadia) in Michigan are much 
rarer than they should be. Many are undoubtedly shot or observed that are 
not recorded. I have two late records. On November ist, 1903, a small boy 
entered my store with a specimen of this beautiful little owl which he shot 
a short ways up the street with a slingshot. I lectured to him on the evils 
of shooting birds, but in spite of the fact he again came in on the 13th with 
another specimen of the same species. 

Two Pine Grosebeaks (Pinicola lenucleator) were shot near Detroit on 
aov. 9th. Many of the larger birds, such as ducks, hawks and owls were 
received for mounting this autumn, but I am pleased to state that I am now 
seldom called upon to put up terns or gulls as hat birds. If all Michigan bird- 
men would use their influence the "hat-bird business" would soon be stopped 
in the state. Louis J. Eppinger. 

Detroit, Mich. 


On November 10th, 1903, I found the remains of a female Surf Scoter 
(Oidemia perspieillata) on the shore of Sugar Island in Monguagon Township 
Wayne County, Mich. The bird was in good condition, and could not have 
been dead many hours. This species is very rare in the state and but few 
specimens have been recorded. J. Claire Wood. 

Detroit, Mich. 


A flock of about thirty Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) were observed 
near the Huron River, about one mile south of here on October 10th, 1903, by 
Mr. R. A. Brown. On November 7th, Mr. Wilbur H. Grant shot three Pine 
Grosbeacks (Pinicola enucleator) from a flock of seven or eight. The latter 

Michigan Ornithological Cluk 97 

were taken three miles east of here. These birds are only a rare straggler 
and I have not observed any for a number of years. 

In looking for notes of interest in my note book I find 1 shot my second 
Prairie Warbler (D. discolor) on April 9th. As noted in the last issue this 
species is very rare in this vicinity. 

I should be pleased to receive from members of the Club their spring and 
autumn notes on the warblers in Michigan for 1903. 

Norman A. Wood. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 


A somewhat aged but none the less brilliant plumaged Goldfinch 
(S. tristis), was captured in July, 1898. The bird retained its nuptial plumage 
until January, when a part of the feathers dropped out and were not replaced. 
Remained in this partial nude state until late April and then blossomed out 
in full winter plumage. Summer plumage began to appear about September 
1st and was complete by the 15th.- Commenced to change into winter plum- 
age about October 15th, and had not acquired the full dress when found dead 
in the cage on the 28th. 

Last July I noticed a Barn Swallow (C. crythrogaster), fluttering along 
the ground and easily effected its capture. All the primary feathers, in the 
right wing, had dropped out and the new growth was less than an inch long 
rendering flight impossible. No sign of molt was visible on the left wing or 
other portions of the plumage. The bird was in excellent condition of flesh. 

J. Claire Wood. 

Detroit, Mich. 


On May 27th, 1903, I flushed a large sparrow from her nest in an open 
meadow, near Waterford, Oakland County, Mich. She at once played "the 
bird with the broken wing act," and incidentally displayed her plumage to its 
best advantage. She was a Lark Sparrow (Chondcstcs gammacus) and the 
first I had ever found nesting. The nest was easily located as it lay almost 
at my feet and contained four young sparrows, perhaps three or four days 
old. During the month of May and June of this year I found this species 
abundantly scattered throughout Oakland County. Mr. C. A. Newcomb, Jr., 
found a set of four heavily incubated eggs on the 16th of June, 1901, in the 
same locality that I found my nest. 

We have records of the Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) breeding 
in the west suburbs of Detroit and in the east suburbs, but I wish to record 
the finding of a pair nesting in the north suburbs by Dr. T. H. Potter, June 
23rd, 1900. There were three eggs heavily incubated. 

Mr. F. C. Hubel in the last issue (page 75), recorded the finding of a set 
of Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramas savannarum passerinus) in St. Clair 
County and has requested information on the subject of their distribution. I 
have as yet to find this bird breeding, but have found them fairly abundant 
in Oakland County during the breeding season. 

Philip E. Moody, M.D. 

Detroit. Mich. 


Bulletin of the 


For many years 1 have made annual visits to the St. Clair Flats in order 
to extend my knowledge of our water birds. 

The Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) is not only a common resi- 
dence, but also an early breeder and a bird of very interesting nesting habits, 
especially the trait of covering its eggs, which never fails to elicit praise from 
the student. 

On May 31st, 1903, while rowing across one of the larger bays, I saw an 
American Bittern fly into some rushes on a small reedy island. Swiftly but 
with as little noise as possible I made for this spot. My appearance was so 
sudden that the Bittern did not see me until I stood up ; he then took to 
flight. Directly in front of the boat and not over six feet away was a Grebe's 
nest full of eggs and they were uncovered. The radius of this island was not 
over fifty feet. A three-minute search convinced me that the Bittern was not 
nesting, so I turned my attention to the Grebe nest and found it completely 
covered with decaying and marsh grass. Although at no time more than 
fifty feet from this nest and always in view, the old bird had returned, cov- 
ered her eggs and retreated. She had made not the slightest sound nor was 
there a ripple in the water to indicate her presence. Another surprise awaited 
me for the nest contained ten eggs, one being one-fourth smaller than the 
remainder. Walter C. Wood, 

> Detroit, Mich, 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 


October 2nd. — Meeting held at the Detroit Museum of Art. Alex. W. 
Blain, Jr., read a paper entitled "Do Wild Birds Die Instantly?" The subject 
provoked a lengthy discussion, in which Messrs. J. C. Wood, Wisner, W. C. 

Michigan Ornithological Cup, 99 

Wood, Swales and the author took part. "Nesting of the White-breasted 
Nuthatch," by Edwin G. Mummery, was presented. B. H. Swales spoke on 
"Autumn Warblers." The rest of the meeting was given to discussion of 
various bird topics. 

December 5th. — Detroit Museum of Art, President Covert in the chair. 
Members present: Messrs. Moody, J. C. Wood. Eppinger, Griffith, Blain, 
W. C. Wood, Butler, Wisner, Swales, of Detroit ; Covert and N. A. Wood, 
of Ann Arbor; Arnold, of Battle Creek, and Brotherton, of Rochester. The 
meeting, which continued until past midnight, was one of the most successful 
of the year. The following programme was presented: "Discovery of the 
Breeding Area of Kirtland's Warbler in Michigan," N. A. Wood; "Observa- 
tions on the Habits of Birds of the Family Mniotiltidae in Monroe County, 
Mich., by Jerome Trombley during the years 1875-1881," A. W. Blain, Jr.; 
"Some Late Breeders," J. Claire Wood ; "Nesting of the Sandhill Crane in 
Michigan," Edward Arnold; "Birds in Their Relation to Art," Prof. A. II. 
Griffith. Discussion followed after each paper, which made the meeting very 

Dr. J. A. Allen, of the Am. Museum of Natural History ; Wm. Brewster, 
of Cambridge, and Robt. Ridgway, of the Smithsonian Inst., were elected 
honorary members. Prof. H. L. Clark, of Olivet, Mich.; A. Bertling, Lon- 
don, England; Geo. W. Morse, Ashley, Ind. ; Miss Clara E. Dyar, Grosse 
Pointe Farms, Mich. ; Fred M. Dille, Longmount, Colo. ; Hon. Chase S. Os- 
born, of Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. ; Mrs. W. B. Williams, Lapeer, Mich. ; Mrs. 
R. A. Newman, Detroit; P. B. Peabody, of Sandance, Wyom. ; and John 
Lewis Childs, of Floral Park, N. Y., were elected active members. 

Amendments were made to the Constitution, namely the creation of a 
class of patrons and change in the number of meetings per year. "Patrons 
shall be members of the club and shall pay five dollars ($5.00) or more per 
year to treasurer." It is hoped that many will join this class so that the 
Bulletin may be improved accordingly. "The club shall meet on the first 
Friday of February, May, August and November at Detroit." The annual 
meeting will be held as before. The office of Sec.-Treas. was made into sep- 
arate offices and the "treasurer shall be business manager of the club publica- 
tions." Chas. E. Wisner was elected to this position, and will begin duties 
the first of the year. The meeting adjourned to February 5th, 1904. 

Bradshaw H. Swales, Secretary. 




ARTICLE I.— Name. 

This society shall be known as the Michigan Ornithological Club. 

ARTICLE II.— Object. 

The object of this society shall be the promotion of the science of orni- 
thology in the Great Lake region. 

ARTICLE III.— Membership. 

(t) The Club shall be composed of active members, honorary 
members and patrons. 

1<)0 Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club 

(2) Active members shall be persons interested in ornithology or 
any branch thereof, and shall pay one dollar ($1.00) per year to the treasurer. 

(3) Honorary members shall be persons distinguished for their 
attainments in ornithology, and shall not exceed five in number. 

(4) Patrons shall be members of the Club and shall pay five dol- 
lars ($5.00), or more, per annum to the treasurer. 

(5) Members and patrons may be elected at any regular or annual 

(6) Applications for membership shall be accompanied by the 
membership fee. 

(7) Members and patrons shall receive the Club journal free of 
charge. Members four months in arrears for dues shall be dropped 
from the roll. 

ARTICLE IV.— Officers. 

(1) The officers of the Club shall consist of a president, three vice- 
presidents, a secretary and a treasurer, who shall perform the customary 
duties of such officers. There shall also be an editor and two associates. 

(2) The editor shall edit the club publications with the assistance 
of the associates. The treasurer shall be business manager of the club 

(3) All officers shall be elected at the annual meeting. 

ARTICLE V.— Meetings. 

(1) The Club shall meet on the first Friday of February, May, 
August and November at Detroit. 

(2) There shall also be annual meeting held at the same time 
and place as the annual meeting of the Michigan Academy of Science. 

(3) The president may call a special meeting at any time or upon 
written request from three members. 

(4) Seven members shall constitute a quorum. 

ARTICLE VI.— Publications. 

The Club shall publish a quarterly bulletin at Detroit on the 15th of 
March, June, September and December and such other ornithological 
work as the members see fit. 

ARTICLE VII.— Committees. 

(1) There shall be two permanent committees, the Bird-Protection 
and the Geographical Distribution,, of four members each, which shall 
be elected at the annual meeting. 

(2) Special committees may be elected or appointed at any Club 

ARTICLE VIII.— Parliamentary Authority. 

Roberts' Rules of Order shall be the parliamentary authority to be 
used in the proceedings of this organization. 

ARTICLE IX.— Amendments. 

This constitution may be amended at any annual or regular meeting 
by a two-thirds (2-3) vote of all the members present. 


Each member of the Club, not in arrears for dues, is entitled to two exchange 
notices, of thirty words each, during the year; other subscribers one 
such notice. 

WANTED.— Copies of the Nuttall Bulletin 1876-78, and The Auk 1884-90. 
Also fine warbler skins. Bradshaw H. Swages, 191 Kirby Ave. East, Detroit, 

WANTED. — To buy collections of specimens or books, any size, for 
prompt cash. Will take singles in any quantity, in exchange for specimens 
or books. Walter F. Webb, 416 Grand Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

WANTED. — Bulletin of the Michigan Ornithological Club, Vols. I., II. 
and III. ; any number. State condition and cash price. All answered. A. W. 
Blain Jr., 131 nimwood Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

TO EXCtL v->! GE. — A series of Common Tern and other common water 
birds for sets not common to this locality. Chas. E. Wisner, 1115 Brooklyn 
Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

WANTED. — First-class sets of eggs. Can offer in exchange some fine 
things, including rare warblers, cranes, falcons, etc., for desirable sets. 
Edward Arnold, Battle Creek, Mich. 

TO EXCHAinGE. — Bird sKins and sets for sets. J. Claire Wood, 179 
17th Street, Detroit, Mich. 

COLLECTORS. — I have issued a 16-page booklet containing a digest of 
the Michigan game laws for 1903-04 and other useful information for collect- 
ors and sportsmen, which I will mail upon request. Louis J. Eppinger, 516 
Chene Street, Detroit, Mich. 

WANljtu. — Sets of eggs containing abnormal specimens, such as runts 
albinos, monstrosities, abnormally colored or shaped eggs. Will give cash or 
good exchange. J. Warren Jacobs, Waynesburg, Pa. 

WANTED. — Every dealer and collector to send me his address that I 
may send out sample sheets of my Standard Field Note and Data Blank Books, 
endorsed by advanced collectors and dealers. Recommended by Ornithologi- 
cal Clubs. "All answered." Geo. W. Morse, Box 230, Ashley, Ind. 

TO EXCHANGE. — A few good sets of Mountain Plover for sets new to 
my collection. Fred M. Dille, Longmont, Colorado, R. F. D. 

FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE.— Skins and mounted birds, sets and 
singles. Wanted, bird skins and sets with data, send lists. All letters ans- 
wered. Jessie T. Craven, 572 Hubbard Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

WANTED. — Bird eggs, sets only. Will take same in payment for 
books, subscriptions, tools, supplies, etc. Send lists, state wants. Can 
supply any want for field or study. Benjamin Hoag, Stephentown, 
New York.